Guzmania: home care, transplantation and reproduction, species
The herbaceous evergreen terrestrial or epiphytic plant guzmania (Guzmania), also called gusmania, is a representative of the bromeliad family. This genus unites approximately 130 species. In nature, such plants are found in Brazil, the West Indies, Venezuela, Central America and southern Florida. They prefer to grow on open mountain slopes at an altitude of about 2.4 thousand meters above sea level. In 1802, this genus was described for the first time, and it was named after the Spanish zoologist, botanist, and pharmacist A. Guzman, who studied South America. To date, a large number of species of this plant are grown in room conditions. Such a flower has a spectacular rosette, consisting of long leaf plates, and not yet quite an ordinary inflorescence, which in shape resembles a cone. However, the main feature of guzmania is its long flowering.
Short description of growing
- Bloom. Each of the outlets of guzmania blooms only once, after which it dies.
- Illumination. The light should be bright and diffused.
- Temperature mode. The air temperature should not be higher than 27 degrees and below - 13 degrees. Such a flower grows best at a temperature of 25 degrees during active growth and development, and at 20 degrees during flowering.
- Watering. It is carried out immediately after the top layer of the soil mixture in the pot dries out a little.
- Air humidity. It should be elevated. For this, the bush is moistened every day from a sprayer with well-settled lukewarm water.
- Fertilizer. Top dressing is carried out from March to September 1 time in 4 weeks, for this they use fertilizer for bromilium, and the concentration of the nutrient solution should be 2 times less than what is written in the instructions.
- Transfer. Such a flower does not need to be transplanted.
- Breeding. In rare cases, seeds, and most often the lateral processes.
- Harmful insects. Scabies, mealybugs and spider mites.
- Diseases. Root and gray rot.
Features of guzmania
Like all representatives of the Bromeliad family in guzmania, leaf plates at the base are superimposed on each other, forming a kind of bowl for water, it accumulates for itself, but other inhabitants of the forest use it in nature. As a rule, leaf plates are monophonic, however, there are species with transversely or longitudinally striped foliage. The length of the leaf plates varies from 0.4 to 0.7 m, they form a rosette, which in diameter reaches an average of about 50 cm, however, there are species that are both smaller and more compact. Different species of flower stalks can have different lengths. Flowering begins in March or September and lasts for several months. Flowers do not represent any decorative value. However, bracts in guzmania are spectacular as if varnished, they are painted in yellow, orange, red or white and have a length of 40 to 50 mm. Such bracts form an extremely unusual inflorescence. The height of an adult bush is about 0.75 m, while its width is up to 0.6 m. However, under indoor conditions, the height of such a flower rarely exceeds 0.4 m. After the bush has faded for 6 months, it dies.
Guzmania (Guzmania, Guzmania). Fine Bromeliad
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Guzmania care at home
To grow guzmania in room conditions, the grower needs to know how to properly care for her. Such a flower is thermophilic, it grows normally only with high humidity and it needs bright, but diffused light without direct sunlight.
The plant, which is preparing for flowering, needs heat, while the air temperature in the room should not fall below 25 degrees.Flowering bush can be in a cooler place (about 20 degrees). Such a plant can withstand a temperature drop of up to 13 degrees for a short time. Despite the fact that guzmania is thermophilic, it can not be exposed to high temperatures (more than 27 degrees) for a long time, otherwise it can lead to the death of the bush.
In order to maintain the high humidity of the air needed for this flower in the room, it is necessary to moisten it from the sprayer every day, for this you need to use filtered water, but distilled water is better for this purpose. From October to February, moisten the flower only in the morning. When spraying the bush, make sure that the liquid does not fall on the surface of the bracts, as this significantly reduces the flowering time.
For watering and spraying such a plant, you can use only distilled or filtered water, because its root system is extremely sensitive to lime, as well as chlorine. Water must be warm (about 20 degrees). Water the flower in such a way that the substrate is always a little moist. Watering is carried out immediately after the surface of the soil mixture begins to dry. Water should be poured directly into a sheet outlet. The frequency of watering is directly related to the temperature and humidity in the room. If the air temperature and illumination are lower than that recommended by experts, then watering will be rarer, however, even in this case, moisten the foliage with lukewarm water every day. In the spring-summer period, when intensive growth of the bush is observed, it especially needs moisture.
To feed guzmania, bromeliad fertilizer is used, which can be purchased at a specialized store. When preparing a nutrient solution, it should be borne in mind that its concentration should be a couple of times lower than that indicated in the instructions. Make sure that the fertilizer does not include copper or boron, as the plant reacts extremely negatively to them. Top dressing is carried out from March to September 1 time in 4 weeks. The nutrient solution is poured directly into a leaf outlet or they are moistened with a bush from a sprayer.
This plant is transplanted only 1 time: from the container in which it grew in the store to its own. But they do it only when necessary. The root system of such a plant is small, in connection with this, a pot for its transplantation should be chosen one that in diameter reaches no more than 10-12 centimeters. Since the bush can overturn the pot as it grows, it needs to be heavier. Also, for stability, the container can be placed in a decorative pot. Do not forget to make a good drainage layer at the bottom of the pot. The soil mixture should pass water well, and its pH should be 5.5-7.0. Approximate soil mixes:
- fern and crushed sphagnum roots (3: 1);
- sand, sheet land, moss and coniferous bark (1: 2: 1: 2);
- humus, peat, sand and turf land (2: 4: 1: 2).
If you do not want to make the soil yourself, you can use it ready for orchids or ferns.
Put a drainage layer on the bottom of the pot and pour a small amount of soil mixture into it, then the bush is transplanted by transshipment from the old tank to the new one, while trying not to destroy its earthen lump. Then the prepared soil mixture must fill all the voids. At the same time, remember that the roots of the flower are very fragile, so you need to be extremely careful.
Guzmania transplantation on bromeliad tree
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Each bush of guzmania blooms only 1 time. Experts consider such a plant to be an annual, but sometimes it takes more than one year to wait until it blooms. A faded bush gradually dies. If he has children, then they can be transplanted.However, the parent bush will die anyway.
Below will be described in detail about the method of propagation of guzmania, about the division of the bush and the planting of children. The fact is that all these procedures are identical. After the bush fades, lateral processes called children are formed in it. A faded parental rosette dies over time, however, several lateral processes are formed near it, in which their own root system forms over time. Jigging of children is carried out after the length of their roots is equal to one and a half centimeters. The baby from the mother bush is cut off with a very sharp pre-sterilized instrument, while the places of the cuts on both the shoot and on the old bush are smeared with garden varieties. The formation of roots in the lateral processes occurs at different rates, in this regard, replanting them at 1 time, most likely, will not work. Children are planted in individual pots, which are filled with soil mixture for orchids, after which they are transferred to a warm place. First, the landed children on top must be covered with a plastic cap, since they need constant high humidity. Grown and matured bushes are planted in permanent pots, resorting to the method of transshipment, while you must try not to injure fragile roots.
How to separate the children of Guzmania (Guzmania)
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Guzmania propagation by seeds
Such a culture can also be propagated by seed. To begin with, the tank is filled with a substrate for bromeliads, which includes sand and ground peat. Seeds are washed in a solution of potassium permanganate, dried well, and then evenly distributed over the surface of the soil mixture. They do not need to be buried in the soil, since for germination they will need a large amount of light, while the surface of the container must be covered with film or glass. Crops are harvested in a warm place (from 22 to 24 degrees), while not forgetting to systematically ventilate them and, if necessary, moisten the substrate from the spray bottle using lukewarm water. The first seedlings should appear after 15-20 days. The picking is carried out after the shoots turn 8-10 weeks, for this they use a soil mixture, which includes peat, leaf and turf land (4: 2: 1). Half a month later, the bushes are transplanted into permanent pots. Flowering of bushes grown from seeds can be seen in 3-5 years.
- With excessive watering possible root decay.
- Often, guzmanias are affected by fungal diseases. due to content in too warm and humid rooms.
- Brown spots on the leaves indicate sunburn.
- The tips of the leaves turn brown with insufficient air humidity, as well as irrigation with hard water or the absence of the required amount of water in the outlet.
- Flowering plants die at the end of flowering - a natural process.
- The appearance of yellow spots on the leaves with a gradual yellowing and death of the leaf as a whole testifies to defeat by a red spider mite.
- Appearance of brown tubercle plaques on leaves - the plant is affected by the bromeliad scale.
- If the leaves are covered with a white cotton-like fluff - means, there was a defeat by mealy bugs.
- If the plant does not form subsidiaries, then it means he lacks nutrients.
- Drooping and soft leaves indicate a low temperature of guzmania.
Types of guzmania with photos and names
In indoor conditions, reed guzmania is most often cultivated - this is a flower that can grow as an epiphyte and as an epilith (on stony soil). The base of such a plant is a rosette, consisting of long and dense broad-linear leaflets of green shape and a green color; it has a corolla in the middle from bracts of saturated color. Such a whisk can be confused with a flower.These flowers are part of the spike-shaped inflorescences, however, they do not have any decorative value, moreover, flowering does not last very long. This species has several varieties:
- Purple (var. Cardinalis). Spreading rosettes include leaf plates of green color, the width of which is 30–40 mm. The inflorescence has a red, scarlet or purple color. The inflorescence is multiflowered. Flowering is observed in March, September.
- Modest (var. Concolor). The socket consists of greenish sheet plates. Pale orange bracts have tips of a more saturated color.
- Fiery (var. Flammea). The socket consists of green leaf plates, the length of which is from 24 to 34 centimeters and the width is from 1 to 2 centimeters, they are directed in all directions of the upper hemisphere. Bracts directed at the zenith are painted in a fiery red hue. Flowering is observed in July, August, while small-flowered inflorescences are formed.
- Normal (var. Lingulata). The socket consists of 25 mm wide sheet plates. The color of erect bracts is pink or red. Flowering occurs in March, August and December.
- Small (var. Minor). The structure of the outlet includes leaf plates of green-red or green color, the width of which is about 25 mm. Bracts of red or lemon yellow leaf plates can be spreading or erect.
Guzmania Donnella Smith
It has a loose outlet consisting of green leaf plates with scales of a paler shade. On an erect peduncle, a short inflorescence of a pyramidal paniculate shape is formed, which at the base is covered with tiled bracts of a deep red color. Flowering is observed in April, May.
Guzmania blood red
A cup-shaped rosette consists of wide-linear sheet plates. Saturated red bracts are thin. The corymbose inflorescence has a leaf-shaped wrapper, its peduncle is undeveloped, so it is immersed in a leaf outlet. This species has several varieties:
- Bloody (var. Sanguinea). Bracts rounded with a sharp apex. The flowers are white or greenish-yellow. Flowering is observed in April, August.
- Short-legged (var. Brevipedicellata). Pointed bracts have a helmet-like shape.
Guzmania musaika, or mosaic
A sprawling rosette is formed from long leaf plates. On the direct peduncle are pointed wide elliptic stipules of a deep pink color. A simple inflorescence of capitate form consists of 20 yellowish-white flowers, its base is hidden by stipules. This species has such varieties as:
- Musaica - greenish leaf plates are streaked with irregular lines, flowering is observed in June, September;
- Concolor - one-color foliage;
- Zebrina - there are wide stripes on the foliage.
Guzmania Nicaraguan (Guzmania Nicaraguensi)
The bush has a lingual foliage, which tapers to the top, along the lower part it is covered with faded, dense scales, which disappear with time. Instead of scales on the foliage, small longitudinal strokes of red color are formed. The leaf rosette has a goblet shape, a spindle-shaped simple inflorescence is immersed in it, on which not many yellow flowers grow. Flowering is observed in March, May.
Guzmania one-banded (Guzmania monostachia)
The structure of the outlet includes a large number of greenish-yellow leaf plates, while those on the bottom are more faded than the upper ones, and on their surface there is some kind of coating, consisting of small-sized flakes, over time they fly around. At the top of the bare peduncle, an elongated multi-row spike, consisting of white flowers, grows. In sterile flowers, the bracts are white or rich red, and in the fruit-forming ones, they are faded with brown longitudinal risks. The following varieties are available:
- Monostachia - the leaf plates are monophonic, on faded bracts there are longitudinal bars of a chocolate hue, flowering is observed in June and July;
- Variegata - on the green leaf plates there are white dashes;
- Alba - the leaves are plain green, the upper bracts are white, and the lower ones are also green.
Guzmania Tsana (Guzmaniazahnii)
The bush has a relatively gigantic size, the length of its leaf blades is about 0.7 m.
Guzmania. Features of development, transplant, species and disease.
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