Autumn pruning of fruit trees: how to prune apple and pear, plums and cherries
Garden trees must be taken care of throughout the year. How rich the harvest will be and how many years the garden tree will live, is directly affected by the correctness and timeliness of care. Pruning trees is of no small importance, because it depends on it how correctly the crown of the plant will be formed. It is necessary to start crown formation already in a very young plant, its main task is to stimulate the strongest branches to grow and bear fruit, while those that interfere, grow in the wrong direction, as well as patients who are injured and old, need to cutting down. In order for the tree to have an even distribution of strength, as well as nutrition, it is necessary not only to feed and protect it from harmful insects and various diseases in a timely manner, but also to systematically and correctly trim in the fall. So, in those garden crops that have a well-formed crown, a larger number of fruits grow, and they are of the highest quality.
Pruning fruit trees in autumn
First you need to find out what cropping is? This is the process of removing the whole shoot of either a branch or part of it. This method of care is used both for fruit trees and for decorative trees and shrubs. Pruning is involved in the regulation of growth, development and fruiting of such plants. The pruning targets can be either formative or sanitary, since a tree or shrub after this procedure is freed from those branches that can harm it. If the tree is quite old, then gardeners use anti-aging pruning, after which the plant gains new strength, while the quantity and quality of the fruit remains almost at the same level. This procedure is recommended to be carried out in the spring and autumn, but there are times when it is simply necessary for gardening in the summer months. It should be borne in mind that pruning a tree in autumn is only possible provided that the region has a fairly mild and warm winter. In the northern regions, experts recommend this procedure in spring. The fact is that a sharp decrease in air temperature after autumn pruning leads to the fact that in those places where the branches were cut, the bark freezes out, and the wood also withers, and the result is the death of the plant. There are such types of garden crops that need to be cut 1 or 2 times a year, but there are those that do not need such frequent pruning. Crops, like other agricultural practices, have certain rules. So, you just need to know when and how to trim a certain garden crop.
Features of autumn pruning of fruit crops
Watch this video on YouTube
Features pruning apple tree
What time to crop
Pruning of apple trees is carried out in the spring, and sometimes in the summer, when ripening apples have a lack of light due to too dense crowns. And it is carried out in the autumn. In spring, before the sap flow begins, those branches that are frozen during the winter are removed, and also form a crown at this time. In autumn, the apple tree is cut in November and, as a rule, crown redevelopment is usually carried out. At the same time, pruning in autumn can only begin after the end of leaf fall. A columnar apple tree should be pruned either in the early summer days or before winter.
In the autumn, you need to remove those branches that are old, injured, sick or with signs of decay. Since the plant is at rest at this time, this procedure does absolutely no harm to it.
A rough plan for the autumn pruning of an apple tree:
- first you need to remove large branches that are injured or dry;
- from the branches growing very close to each other, it is necessary to leave the strongest, and remove the rest;
- cut branches growing at an acute angle;
- places of cuts should be covered with paint on varnish or garden varnish, while dry branches are treated immediately, and young ones after 24 hours;
- branches that have been cut need to be destroyed.
If the apple tree is young, then with the help of a pruner it is only weakly pruned, and the growth of this year should be shortened by ¼ part. After this, these specimens are not pruned for 3-5 years, cutting off only dried as well as injured branches. However, this is only if the tree does not grow tall too fast. Those apple trees that are 5-6 years old need medium-pruned trimming - strong branches shorten 1/3 of their length. Old apple trees are pruned for rejuvenation in 3 steps. So, in the first year, you need to remove about 1/3 of all the old branches, in the second year, another 1/3 of the old branches, and the remaining 1/3 part after another 1 year. It is worth considering that secateurs can not cope with powerful adult branches, here you can not do without a saw. It should also be remembered that the tools used for pruning branches should be very sharp and should be disinfected.
How to prune a columnar apple tree
Regarding the care of colon-shaped apple trees, one should remember that the more intensively the pruning will be, the faster and better the remaining branches will grow. In the event that you cut more than ½ part of the branch, then from those 3 or 4 buds that remain, strong shoots will grow next spring. If less than ½ part of the branch is removed, then from those 5-7 buds that remain, 5-7 mediocre shoots will grow. It is forbidden to cut the central conductor of the column, otherwise the crown will branch. If during the formation they want to achieve a columnar crown, then after planting a seedling, its crown shoot must be tied to a support. From the side shoots, the formation of fruit links should be made. Too powerful shoots need to be cut into a ring, because because of them, a conduit may be stunted. After young shoots grow, they form the skeleton of the crown.
Autumn pruning of trees. How to prune an apple tree in autumn
Watch this video on YouTube
Features of pear tree pruning
When to prune a pear
Those gardeners who still have too little experience believe that you need to prune a pear just like an apple tree, but they are mistaken. The pear tree, like the apple tree, should not be pruned annually. For sanitary purposes, cutting a pear in autumn is only possible if the street is still warm. In the same case, if frost has already come, this procedure must be postponed until next spring, since pruning of a pear tree at minus temperature is not performed. If you nevertheless cut the branches, then the places of the slices will not be able to heal, while the branches themselves will freeze and die. The best time to trim this garden crop is spring, when the street will be warmer than 8 degrees. In the case when the tree needs to be cut in the autumn, this can only be done in September. When trimming is carried out in order to form the crown, it must be remembered that the pyramidal shape is more convenient for the assembly of fruits.
Pear pruning in the fall
The formation of the tree’s crown should begin from the first year of its life, while it is necessary to immediately identify the skeletal branches, because this will allow the crown to develop not only correctly, but also symmetrically. Pruning of annual plants is carried out at a height of 40 to 50 centimeters from the soil surface. For those pears that are 2 years old, it follows from the existing 6–8 lateral branches to leave only 3 or 4, which will assume the role of skeletal ones.Their trimming should be done at the same level. The conductor must be trimmed 20 centimeters higher than the branches that are skeletal. Autumn pruning of adult pear trees is usually done only for sanitary purposes. So, at this time, you should cut off the branches that thicken the crown, as well as injured and diseased. It is also recommended that the crown and annual shoots be shortened by 1/3, but only if the pear tree is pulled too far upwards, this strengthens the plant and also strengthens branching, and the buds begin to develop more quickly. But at the same time, try to ensure that during the procedure the shape of the crown, which should be pyramidal, is not disturbed. After trimming is finished, it is necessary to smear the places of cuts, as well as existing cracks and damage on the surface of the bark with garden varieties. At the same time, adult dry branches need to be treated immediately, and young ones after 24 hours.
The anti-aging pruning of an old pear tree begins with the top being shortened. However, if the annual pruning was carried out correctly, then the crown should have an optimal height. In this case, it is only necessary to thin out the crown; for this, all old and dried branches are cut, as well as those that do not bear fruit and grow at an acute angle or parallel to the trunk, the same shoots that remain must be cut into ¼ part. Processing should be done with paint made on varnish, or garden var. Such pruning for old trees is recommended in the spring, as in this case the plant will tolerate it less painfully, but this procedure must be done before the buds wake up, and the air temperature in the street should be at least 5 degrees.
Features of prune pruning
When to prune a plum
Plum should also be pruned, as well as other garden crops, and this procedure is performed when necessary at different times of the year. Spring pruning is carried out before the buds open, at this time those parts of the branches that have frozen should be removed, and also the plum should be prepared for the period of active growth, forming a crown. In the summer, with too many fruits, pruning may be necessary to prevent branch breaks. After leaf fall in autumn, it is necessary to prepare this garden culture for wintering.
By cutting the plum in the fall, the gardener not only prepares it for the upcoming winter, but also helps to increase productivity. After the plant stops growing, and all the leaves fall off, the plant begins preparing for sleep. At this time, injured, dry, damaged by insects and diseased branches should be cut from the tree, the top should also be shortened, but this is only when the tree is more than 250 centimeters tall. After that, you need to shorten too fast growing shoots, as well as cut off the competitor shoots, because in the spring they will start to grow and this will lead to a thickening of the crown, which will make the light come in much worse. In young plums, the upper and lateral shoots need to be shortened by no more than 1/3, while the branches that grow inside the crown need to be cut off completely. Shortening of old branches is done in spring, but if you wish, during autumn pruning, you can remove stem branches that have not borne fruit this year, as well as cut dry or diseased shoots. Those branches that have been cut must be destroyed. Slicing sites must be processed. If the plum tree is old, then pruning should be postponed until spring. The fact is that the wounds on them heal not so fast, and in most cases gum starts to leak out of them, as a result of the onset of frost, they can ruin the plant, which could bear fruit for many more years.
Features of Cherry Pruning
When to cut a cherry
Cherry should not be cut every year. If there is a need for shaping or anti-aging pruning, then this procedure must be carried out in the spring. In the fall, pruning can only be done for sanitary purposes. In that case, if winters are mild and warm, then in such areas the plant can be cut in October. And in the northern regions where frosty winters are observed, autumn pruning must be done in September. You can start pruning the plant immediately after the end of leaf fall, but if frost should begin in the near future, then this procedure should be postponed until the spring.
Cherry pruning in the fall
Those seedlings that are not pruned for only 1 year in autumn, the fact is that they are not able to recover quickly, and the onset of frost can destroy them. In older cherries, you need to cut all the branches except the 5 strongest, which should be directed to the sides. At the same time, they should grow no closer than 10 centimeters from each other. Sanitary pruning of adult cherries is carried out only if necessary, while it is necessary to cut off dry, injured, as well as diseased branches. In autumn, the whole shoot should be cut, because it makes the plant weaker, while in winter, small rodents, as well as various pests, like to hide in it. In the case when the plant is root-bearing, its shoot is quite suitable for planting, because it is able to preserve all varietal characteristics of the parent plant. In a grafted plant, overgrowth should not be used for planting, and it must be removed, as it can cause significant harm to the cherry. Formative pruning of young cherries is done in spring. At the same time, pruning of old plants is postponed, which is carried out in order to rejuvenate them.
Apricot pruning features
When to cut apricot
Apricots are pruned in spring, summer and autumn. At the same time, in springtime, pruning should be thorough, it includes formative, sanitary and, if necessary, rejuvenating. In the summer, the plant is pruned only when there is a danger that the branches will break off due to the large number of fruits. In the fall, pruning is carried out for sanitary purposes, it is preparing the plant for the upcoming winter.
Apricot pruning in the fall
Before you begin to prune the branches, you need to think about what kind of shape the crown of the plant should be - tiered or tiered. In that case, if the place in the garden is not very large, it is recommended to give the apricot crown a cup shape, for this branch should be shortened by about ½ part. In autumn, the apricot needs sanitary pruning, for this you need to remove the injured, diseased, dry branches, and you also need to thin out the crown, for this you need to remove those branches and shoots that grow inward. But it should be remembered that such a plant loves heat very much, and therefore deep cuts cannot be applied. If nevertheless this happened, then the wound should be smeared with copper sulfate, and then with garden varnish to prevent the gum from flowing out.
Peach pruning features
When to prune a peach
Peach can be trimmed in summer, autumn and spring. In spring, the plant needs formative pruning, and those branches that were damaged by frost should also be removed. At the same time, if necessary, anti-aging pruning is done for old peaches. In the summer, the plant is pruned if necessary. In autumn, the peach must be prepared for the upcoming winter.
Peach pruning in the fall
In autumn, it is necessary to cut off all branches that are not needed, as well as those that were damaged by pests or diseases. Cut branches must be destroyed, do not forget to smear the places of cuts on the plant with oil paint or garden varnish.
Features of sweet cherry pruning
When to cut sweet cherries
Formative pruning must be done in spring. In autumn, it is necessary to produce sanitary, as well as mandatory anti-aging pruning (most experts advise). But there is also an opinion that in autumn, pruning should be done only in extreme cases, to rid the plant of branches that are injured and affected by disease or pests. If this plant is cut very strongly in the fall, this can lead to a slowdown in its bearing. Which of the options for autumn pruning cherries to choose, the gardener himself must decide. For example, in the autumn you can do a rejuvenating pruning, but if something does not suit you in the state of the plant, then postpone this procedure until spring until the next year.
Cherry pruning in the fall
Experts advise the crown of the plant to give a conical shape, while the base should be wide. In this case, the plant will lack both light and heat, and the air circulation inside the crown will also improve. And if desired, the crown can be cupped in the form of a tier. In autumn, when leaf fall ends, it is necessary to remove all injured, dry and diseased branches and stems. For rejuvenation, you need to cut out on the ring those branches that are 6-8 years old, while the places of the cuts need to be greased with oil paint or garden varnish.
Pruning other garden trees
It should be remembered that the main pruning of various fruit crops should be done in the spring, with the exception of the apple and pear trees. At the same time, the street should be above zero, but you need to catch it before the kidneys swell. The fact is that in the heat the wounds on these plants heal better and faster. In autumn, it is most often recommended to remove only unnecessary branches. This pruning principle applies not only to the above plants, but also to sea buckthorn, cherry plum, mulberry, quince, irga, viburnum, etc.
- Kidney cut - this will help change the growth of the branch and direct it in the right direction. On a year-old stem you need to find a kidney that looks in the direction you need. Then a branch is cut off near it at an angle of 45 degrees, so that the stump from the side of the stem opposite from the kidney is not too long (the length of the spike is about 1.5–2 centimeters). The fact is that a longer stump most often dries up, and the bud does not wake up in the spring.
- Ring cut - when removing an unnecessary branch, it is cut out entirely along the outer edge of the ring (a special influx of bark at the junction of the cut branch with the one that remains). This type of pruning will help make the main branch lateral.
There are several different types of cuttings used for horticultural crops, namely: regulatory, regenerative, shaping, rejuvenating and sanitary.
A garden var is smeared on the places of cuts and wounds, while the layer should be about 0.3-0.5 centimeters thick. Currently, experts are increasingly advising to replace this product with latex paint, which contains copper salts, and you can use "artificial bark" - this tool speeds up the recovery process, and also protects the wound from excessive drying, as well as from pathogenic microorganisms getting into it. and water.
CHERRY, A SIMPLE CUTTING METHOD. We form a cherry that is easy to care for.
Watch this video on YouTube