Horseradish: planting and care in the open ground, growing from seeds
The herbaceous perennial plant horseradish (Armoracia rusticana), either rustic horseradish or ordinary horseradish, is a representative of the genus Horseradish of the Cabbage family (Cruciferous). Under natural conditions, such a plant can be found in the Caucasus, Siberia and Europe, while it prefers to grow in moist places along the banks of various water bodies and rivers. Horseradish is cultivated in all countries, including Greenland. Already in the Ancient Ages in Greece and Rome, people began to eat it. The first written sources, where there is a mention of horseradish, date back to the 9th century AD, according to scientists it was at that time that they began to grow it in Russia. It was used as a seasoning for meat and fish dishes, added grated to kvass, as well as to various pickles. In Western Europe, or rather, in Germany, such a culture began to be grown again only in the 16th century, various dishes began to be seasoned with it, and also used as an additive in beer and schnapps. After that, he began to be cultivated in Scandinavia, in France and in England, where he was also called the "horse radish." At this time, horseradish was already used, not only adding to various dishes, but also as a folk remedy with powerful healing properties.
Short description of growing
- Landing. In the last days of March or in the first - April.
- Illumination. Needs bright sunshine.
- Priming. Sandy loamy, loamy or chernozemic soil, which must be nutritious.
- Watering. Watering should be systematic, with 1 to 2 buckets of water leaving for 1 square meter of land. If it rains regularly in the summer, then horseradish can do without watering.
- Fertilizer. The first time they are fed after the formation of the first real leaf plates, for this, a solution of complex mineral fertilizer is used. After 15-20 days, repeated feeding is carried out; for this, organics, or rather, a mullein solution, is used.
- Breeding. Vegetatively (in parts of the rhizome), less often use the seed method.
- Harmful insects. Cruciferous fleas, rapeseed bugs and flower beetles, cabbage bugs and ognevki.
- Diseases. White rot, linen, verticillosis and viral mosaic.
In horseradish, a fleshy and thick root crop is formed. The stalk is straight and branched, its height can vary from 0.5 to 1.5 meters. Very large, basal basal leaf plates have an oblong-oval shape, while at the base they are heart-shaped. The upper leaf plates are solid linear, while the lower ones are pinnately separate. In white flowers, the length of the petals reaches 0.6 cm. Fruits are bloated pods of oblong-oval shape, the length of which is 0.5–0.6 cm, on the surface of the valves there is a mesh-vein pattern. Inside the pods are nests, in which there are 4 seeds. This perennial plant is remarkable for its unpretentious simplicity and frost resistance. Having planted it once, it will be impossible to get rid of it, since it behaves extremely aggressively akin to weed grass.
The composition of each part of the bush includes an essential oil with a pungent smell and taste. The root juice of such a plant contains ascorbic acid, thiamine, riboflavin, carotene, starch, carbohydrates, fatty oil, tarry substances and lysozyme protein, which has a powerful antimicrobial effect. The root crop includes mineral salts of calcium, potassium, magnesium, sulfur, phosphorus, copper and iron. Official medicine has long been aware that horseradish has powerful healing properties, so it helps to improve intestinal activity, has a choleretic, anti-zingotic and expectorant effect. It is used during the treatment of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, liver and bladder, colds, gout and rheumatism.
How to grow horseradish in a garden
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Planting horseradish in the open ground
What time to plant
Horseradish is planted in open soil in the early spring, or rather, in the last days of March (if it is warm) or in April. This culture is not afraid of any frost or cold snap. For planting such a plant, a small, well-lit area located near the fence is perfect.
The vegetative method of propagating horseradish by parts of the rhizome is most popular. However, it is quite possible to grow it from seeds, but this method is relatively laborious, for which gardeners do not like it.
Soil for horseradish
This culture grows well in nutrient soil, which can be black soil, loam or sandy loam. If the clay soil is properly prepared, then on it such a plant will develop and grow within the normal range. To do this, in the autumn months, when digging such a site, sand, peat, and also manure should be added to the soil (per 1 square meter from 10 to 12 kilograms). At the same time, in spring, minerals are introduced into the soil: 30 grams of superphosphate, potassium salt and ammonium nitrate per 1 square meter of land. If, for growing such a root crop, a site with a soil suitable for it is selected, then organic fertilizers are recommended to be applied under the previous crop, for example: legumes or grains.
Harvesting of root cuttings should be carried out in autumn along with harvesting. They are stored for storage in the cellar or basement, buried in dry sawdust or sand. Harvesting of root cuttings can also be carried out at the beginning of the spring period before leaf plates appear on the bushes. When 10-15 days remain before disembarking into the ground, the cuttings should be removed from the store and, having covered them with a moistened cloth, removed in a warm place. This is necessary in order for the buds to sprout.
Before embarking, lateral processes should be separated from the main root, the length of which should be no more than 25 centimeters, and in diameter they should reach - up to 1.2 centimeters. If the handle is very long, then it must be divided into parts, while the lower cut should be oblique, and the upper one - horizontal. Then they are landed on a pre-prepared site, while it should be noted that no more than 4-6 bushes should be on 1 square meter. When planting cuttings, the distance between them should be from 0.3 to 0.4 m, and the width between the rows must be maintained in the range from 0.65 to 0.7 m. To collect a rich crop of smooth root crops, the cuttings must be prepared before planting. Take coarse tissue for this and rub the middle part of the cuttings with it, as a result you will remove the extra buds from it, leaving only the upper buds to form the foliage and the lower ones to form the root system. When planting such a vegetable in order to obtain planting material, it is not necessary to remove the germinated buds from the cuttings, in this case the root of the bush will be very branched and it will be possible to obtain a large number of cuttings.
It is necessary to plant the cuttings in open soil at an angle, while their top is buried in the soil only by 50 mm, and the lower part by 100 mm. To propagate such a vegetable, small pieces of roots, the thickness of which should be no more than 25 mm and a length of up to 80 mm, are also suitable, they need to be planted in the soil horizontally, while the kidneys are not removed from them.
How to Plant Homemade Horseradish Root Correctly. Horseradish Properties
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Planting horseradish in the winter
This plant in the autumn is planted in the ground in the same way as in the spring. In this case, it is recommended for him to choose a site on which tomatoes or potatoes were previously grown, and before planting such crops, all the necessary organic matter should be added to the soil. All weed grass and plant debris should be removed from the site, and when it is dug up, you can begin to plant horseradish. It is best to plant horseradish in the winter in mid-October.
After horseradish sprouts appear from the soil, they will need to be thinned out. During this procedure, all weak and poorly developed shoots must be removed, leaving the most powerful ones. In July, side branches are trimmed from the root crop; for this, it should be carefully excavated and removed from its upper part (up to 0.25 m) all existing side roots. When all the rhizomes are processed, they are again gently covered with soil, which is then densely compacted and watered. At the same time, try to ensure that there are no voids near the rhizome. The rest of the care for such a plant is very simple, you need to water it, weed, loosen the surface of the soil near the bushes in a timely manner, and also provide protection from various harmful insects and diseases.
Throughout the growing season, watering such a vegetable should be systematic. During this procedure, 1–2 buckets of water should be consumed per 1 square meter of land. Particular attention is paid to watering during prolonged droughts. If it rains systematically in the summer, then horseradish can do without watering at all, since if the soil stagnates, then because of this rot may appear on the roots, which will cause the loss of the entire crop.
After the first leaf plates appear, the bushes should be fed with a mineral complex, for this, 8 grams of superphosphate, 5 grams of ammonium nitrate and the same amount of potassium salt are taken per 1 square meter of the bed. If the growth and development of the bushes is very slow, then 15–20 days after the first fertilizer application, they should be fed with a mullein solution (1:10).
Pests and diseases of horseradish
Horseradish is more resistant to disease than other crops belonging to the cruciferous family. If such a plant is poorly maintained or does not provide optimal conditions for growth, then the bushes can be affected by linen, mosaics, white rot or verticillosis. Cruciferous fleas, rapeseed bugs and flower beetles, cabbage bugs and ognevki can harm such root crops.
Today, viral diseases are considered incurable, so if horseradish is struck by mosaic or verticillus wilting, then these bushes must be excavated and destroyed. If the plant is affected by white rot or linen, which are fungal diseases, then they can be cured only at the very beginning of the development of the disease. To do this, they are treated with a solution of the drug containing copper (for example: copper sulphate, Tiovit Jet, Bordeaux liquid, Oksikhom or other similar means).
In order to prevent harmful insects from appearing on plants, one must adhere to the rules of agricultural technology of this crop: observe crop rotation rules, remove weed from the plot in time, when the crop is harvested, the plot must be cleaned of plant debris, and then it is subjected to deep digging. Insecticides can also help in controlling pests. If bugs and fleas settled on the bushes, then they need to be sprayed with Foxim or Actellik's solution, the fire spreaders and flower beetles are destroyed by Etaphos, Tsimbush or Zolon.
Please note that 20 days before harvesting, all chemical treatments should be discontinued. It should be remembered that the bushes weakened by improper care most often get sick, and harmful insects also prefer to settle on them. And if you take care of horseradish correctly and adhere to the rules of agricultural technology, then you will be able to protect it from many diseases and pests.
Harvest and storage of horseradish
Already in August, they begin to cut horseradish foliage, it is used as a spice during the conservation of tomatoes, cucumbers and other vegetables. At the same time, remember that if you cut off all leaf plates from the bush, then this will extremely negatively affect the development of the rhizome.Foliage trimming should be carried out at a height of 10 to 15 centimeters from the soil surface, in which case the apical bud and the leaf will remain unharmed.
Mass harvesting of root crops is carried out in the last days of October or the first - November, before the freezing begins, at which time the foliage turns yellow and begins to dry out. When planting large cuttings, harvesting is carried out in the same season. If relatively small root cuttings were planted, then normal root crops of them will grow only in the next season. Before starting the harvest, the foliage should be cut off from the bushes, then with the help of a shovel they dig the rhizome and pull it out of the soil. Remember that if at least a few pieces of small roots remain in the ground, then next year they will be more like weed grass. As soon as the roots are removed from the soil, they need to be removed in a cool room, while not tightening. Then, soil residues and side branches are removed from them, the sections of the sections are necessarily coated with iodine. For drying, horseradish is removed in a warm, well-ventilated place for 24 hours.
For storage of root crops, boxes of wood are used, on the bottom of which it is necessary to pour a layer of soil, while they are laid out in rows in such a way that their surfaces do not touch each other. After a row of horseradish has been laid, it should be sprinkled with clean sand. When the vegetable is laid in boxes, it is stored for storage in the cellar or basement. For storage, the root crop can also be put on the shelf of the refrigerator, but in this case its length should not exceed 0.3 m, while each of them must be wrapped with cling film, in which do not forget to make several holes for ventilation. On a shelf of a refrigerator designed for vegetables, horseradish retains its properties for about 20 days. In frozen form, it can be stored for up to 6 months, for this, the skin is removed from the root crop and cut into cubes, after the moisture that has come out is removed from them (you can use napkins) they are poured into a bag of polyethylene and put into the freezer.
If desired, horseradish can be dried. To do this, the root should be cut into small slices, which are laid out on a baking sheet in 1 layer, after which it is removed to the oven for 90 minutes. while the temperature should be no more than 60 degrees. The dry and hardened root is crushed, for this you can use several devices: a grater, coffee grinder or mortar. The resulting powder must be poured into a container of porcelain or glass, which is closed with a lid. Before using the finished powder for its intended purpose, it must be mixed with water so that it is soft. The shelf life of dried horseradish is no more than two years.
Such a vegetable can be pickled. To do this, take 1 kilogram of root crops that need to be cleaned and washed. They are rubbed on a grater or passed through a meat grinder, and the resulting mass is tightly packed in a glass jar, which must be sterilized in advance, after which the marinade is poured into the container. For its preparation in 1 tbsp. boiling water put 1 large spoon of salt and granulated sugar, when the marinade is removed from the stove, add ½ tbsp. apple cider vinegar (6%). If desired, 1 large spoonful of citric acid can be used to replace vinegar. Freshly boiled marinade is poured into a jar of horseradish, which is rolled up with a pre-sterilized metal lid. Pickled vegetable retains its properties for several years.
Types and varieties of horseradish
Below will be described in detail those varieties of horseradish that are considered the best:
- Atlas, or Wild. This medium-ripening variety is resistant to drought, frost and moisture. The length of the root crop can vary from 0.2 to 0.5 m, in diameter it reaches 40–50 mm, and it weighs 190–380 grams. The color is not too juicy dense pulp milky white.
- Valkovsky. This late variety is resistant to diseases and cruciferous midges.A cylindrical root crop of pale yellow color reaches 0.5–0.6 m in length, and 20–30 mm across. On average, the root weighs about 150 grams.
- Suzdal. An even root crop has no lateral branches, its length is about 0.3 m, and in diameter it reaches - 30 mm. Its white flesh is juicy and very sharp.
- Tolpukhov. Root crops of such a late variety reach 25 to 35 centimeters in length, and they weigh 65–250 grams.
In addition to these varieties of horseradish, gardeners enjoy popularity such as: Riga, Jelgava, Latvia, Rostov, Volkovsky, Marune, Boris Yeltsin and others.
Gardeners also cultivate the Katran plant, which is a relative of horseradish and is distinguished by its unpretentiousness, nutrition and resistance to frost. This plant is also used as a medicinal one; it contains a large amount of minerals and vitamins. Despite all the advantages, it is not cultivated as widely as horseradish, although plus everything, it does not grow on a site like an aggressive weed. The katran has large greenish sheet plates with a blue tint. They are boiled and served as a side dish for meat and fish dishes.
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