Parsnip: outdoor cultivation and care, pests and diseases
The herbaceous perennial plant parsnip meadow, either sowing, or ordinary (Pastinaca sativa) is a species of the genus Pasternak family Celery, or Umbrella. The name of this species was formed from the Latin word "pastus", which means "feed, food, nutrition". In the people, such a plant is also called white root, white carrot or field borsch. This species comes from the Mediterranean. Parsnip has been known to man for a very long time, while the first mention of it was found in the writings of Dioscorides and Pliny, which date back to the 1st century BC. The seeds of this culture were found in Switzerland during the excavation of the Neolithic. The ancient Romans, as well as the Greeks, knew such a plant under the name "pastinaka", it was eaten, and also used as a healing plant, and also used as cattle feed. By the middle of the 16th century, this culture had become very popular and accessible in Europe, as, for example, potatoes at a later time, it was he who would eventually supersede parsnip from European vegetable gardens. In Russia, this plant first appeared in the 17th century, and then it was called "field borsch." Today, under natural conditions, it is found in weedy places among shrubs in Turkey, Western Siberia, the Caucasus and Europe. Parsnip cultivation is practiced in almost all countries.
The height of a rough furrowed upright stalk can vary from 0.3 to 2 meters, it has a faceted sharp-ribbed shape, and there is pubescence on its surface. The upper part of the stem is branched. The composition of unpaired leaf plates includes from 2 to 7 pairs of more or less pubescent leaflets of large-fingered oval or lobed form, in the upper part they are sessile, and in the lower part they have short petioles. Ripening of the root crop is observed in the first year of growth. It is thick, fragrant, white, has a sweetish taste, the root can have a cone shape (like a carrot) or round (like turnips). The color of the fetus in the context of dirty yellow. The composition of complex umbrellas includes from 5 to 15 rays, which in turn consist of bisexual regular small flowers with a yellow corolla. Parsnip bloom is observed in the second year of growth. The shape of the fetus is rounded oval, this flattened oviparous is painted in a dirty yellow hue. Parsnip is considered to be the closest relative of the following garden crops: carrots, parsley, fennel, dill, celery, coriander and lovage.
EVERYTHING ABOUT PASTERNK WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW!
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Growing parsnip from seeds
If you decide to grow parsnip on your site, then the first thing you need to sow it. Of all root plants, parsnip is the most frost-resistant, and it would seem that its seeds can be sown directly in open soil in early spring, as soon as it warms up a little. However, gardeners prefer to grow this culture through seedlings, since the seeds contain a very large amount of essential oils, which is why they sprout for a rather long time.
Large seeds of this plant need pre-sowing preparation. To begin with, they are immersed in lukewarm water for 24 hours, it must be replaced immediately after it cools down. After that, they are treated with a growth stimulating agent, for example: Epin, Heteroauxin or Zircon. Prepared seeds are sown in peat pots, which are filled with peat-based substrate. The soil mixture can be bought ready-made in a special store or made with your own hands, for this you need to combine peat, perlite, garden earth and sand.Remember that the substrate must be loose and light. Before starting sowing, the soil mixture is disinfected, for this it is sieved and spilled with freshly boiled water or steamed in an oven.
Fill the pots with moistened soil mixture, which is compacted so that it is not less than 10 mm lower than the edge of the container, then 2 or 3 seeds are placed on its surface. From above it is necessary to fill them with a thin layer of the same soil mixture. Then the containers must be put on a pallet, and on top of them they are covered with a film.
Until the seedlings appear, the crops should be regularly ventilated, for this 1 time per day, you need to raise the shelter for 7-10 minutes. It has already been said above that the seeds of this culture do not germinate quite well, because they contain a lot of essential oil, in this regard, the first seedlings should appear no earlier than half a month after sowing. When the first shoots appear, the shelter is removed, and the pots are moved to a well-lit place.
Seedlings of this culture need a fairly long daylight (about 14 hours) in this regard, if necessary, it should organize additional illumination. Seedlings are watered as the top layer of the substrate dries in containers. Remember that water should not stagnate in pots, because because of this, the plants can begin to hurt or even die.
Parsnip - grow parsnip from seeds
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How to dive
It should be remembered that root crops react extremely negatively to picking; in this regard, they are recommended to be sown in individual containers, and not in common boxes. After 2 real leaf plates are formed on the plants, it is necessary to select the most powerful of all in the pot, and gently pinch the remaining seedlings above the surface of the substrate. It is not recommended to pull out extra seedlings, as this can cause injury to the root system of a strong plant. About 1.5 weeks before transplanting the parsnip into open soil, you should begin to harden it. For this, the seedlings must be taken out every day to fresh air, while the duration of such a procedure is increased gradually.
Parsnip planting in open ground
What time to plant
Planting parsnip seedlings in open soil is recommended in mid-May, after the plants are 28 to 30 days old. Most often at this time, spring return frosts are already left behind, and the soil is quite well warmed up. Planting seedlings in the suburbs is necessary at about the same time, adjusted for the weather.
For planting seedlings, you must select a sunny area, however, such a plant can be grown in a shaded place. It grows best on neutral wet sandy loam, peat or loamy soil. Such a culture does not grow on acidic soil; it can be corrected by liming. Plots where crops such as carrots, parsley, celery, parsnips and other root crops were grown a year ago are not suitable for planting parsnips, since these plants suffer from the same diseases, and they also have common pests. It is best to grow such a crop in the area where cabbage, potatoes, onions or beets previously grew, especially if fertilizers were applied to the soil during their cultivation. The fact is that the parsnip grows well on the soil that was fertilized in advance, in connection with this, it is recommended to prepare the site for the parsnip in advance. This should be done in autumn, the site should be cleaned of weed grass, and if organic fertilizers were not applied to the soil this season, then rotted manure should be added to the soil (½ bucket of fertilizer is taken per 1 square meter).In spring, before planting seedlings in open soil, the site should be re-dug up, its surface is leveled, and then tall beds are formed.
Rules for planting seedlings
Make several holes in the bed, observing the distance between them from 10 to 12 centimeters, and the width between the rows should be at least 0.4 m. The depth of the planting pits should be such that the plant with the peat pot freely fit in them. In the case when the seedlings were grown in plastic cups, it should be watered very well before planting. Carefully remove the plant with a lump of earth and transfer it into the landing hole. Planted plants should be watered abundantly.
Parsnip planting in the winter
This crop can be grown using winter sowing. Sowing of seeds is carried out in autumn until the second half of October, for this you should use the site that is best prepared in advance and it is recommended to do this in the spring. Since the seeds have a sufficiently large size, 3 pieces are sown in one hole, they are buried in the soil by 30–40 mm. The distance between the holes should be from 10 to 12 centimeters, while the width between the rows is about 0.4-0.45 m. The advantage of the winter sowing is that the seedlings appear in spring in a very friendly manner. After the seedlings grow a little, they will need thinning, and the most powerful plant should be chosen, and the remaining ones must be carefully plucked.
Growing parsnips in the garden is quite simple. For this, plants must be timely watered, weeded, fed and loosened the surface of the soil between the rows. Facilitates the care of the parsnip that this plant is distinguished by its unpretentiousness.
The first time the soil surface needs to be loosened after the seedlings appear or when the seedlings planted in the open ground are accepted. Subsequently, loosening of the soil is carried out each time after the rain passes or watering is carried out.
How to water
This plant is hygrophilous, it especially needs water during the formation of root crops. If the parsnip does not have enough moisture, then the color of its foliage will become lighter, the growth of the bush will be slower, and an arrow may appear. Also, because of this, root crops in a plant can become stiff, fibrous and dry, and cracks will appear on their surface. If stagnation of water is observed in the soil, then this can cause the development of a fungal disease.
If the parsnip is grown in moist soil, then for the season it will need to be abundantly watered only 4 or 5 times and then only during a prolonged drought. If it rains systematically in the summer, then you will not have to water this crop at all. When the bed is watered, it is recommended to weed, as well as loosen its surface.
It should be remembered that in dry and hot weather the foliage of such a plant gives off a rather corrosive essential oil, which can cause burns. In this regard, try to work with such plants early in the morning or in the evening, when the sun sets.
During the growing season, such a plant will need to be fed 3 or 4 times. For top dressing, it is necessary to use exclusively liquid fertilizers, for example: a solution of mullein (1:10), mineral fertilizers or infusion of wood ash.
When 7-15 days pass after transplanting the parsnip into the garden, it will be necessary to feed it with nitrogen-containing fertilizer. After 20 days, repeated feeding is carried out with the same fertilizer. From mid-July, bushes begin to be fed with fertilizers containing phosphorus and potassium. If, on the site where the parsnip grows, the soil is nutritious, then the bushes can not be fed at all, especially if fertilizers were previously applied to the soil.
Pests and parsnip diseases with photos and names
Parsnip can get the same diseases as other cultures belonging to the Umbrella family. For example, it can suffer from septoria, cercosporosis, wet bacterial rot, black rot (or alternariosis), and also white and gray rot of root crops.
On the foliage of specimens affected by septoria, many spots of medium size appear that do not have clear boundaries, they eventually become darker and eventually become brownish-brown. Sick bushes turn yellow and dry. This disease develops rapidly in cool weather, if there is increased humidity. The infection enters the plants through the stomata.
If the parsnip is affected by cercosporosis, then spots appear on the shoots and foliage, reaching 0.6 cm across, dirty brown or light yellow in color, which have an irregular shape. As the disease develops, the spots in the center fade, while the border around them darkens. The edge of the affected leaf plates becomes elevated and slightly wrapped. On the surface of the shoots, brownish-red spots of an elongated shape look like dents. In the affected bushes, there is a lag in development, and the foliage turns yellow and dries.
Wet bacterial rot
Wet bacterial rot is a widespread disease, it develops intensively with high humidity and sudden changes in temperature. Root crops are affected by such a disease both in the open ground and during storage. The disease begins with the appearance of rot in the tail. Initially, oily-watery spots of a dark color are formed on the bush. Over time, depressions with a fetid rotting mass appear in these areas, it flows from root crops like mucus, as a result of which the disease spreads to other bushes, and this happens quite rapidly.
Black rot (alternariosis) - the development of this disease mainly occurs during storage. On the surface of root crops, slightly indented spots of a dark color appear, and in damp weather a dark olive-colored coating forms on them. Cross-sectional tissue affected by the disease has a charcoal-black hue.
Sclerotinia (gray rot) and botritis (white rot) - these diseases differ in the color of plaque, which forms on the surface of root crops. On root crops affected by gray rot, a fluffy coating of gray color appears, and on those that are sick with white rot, a white coating forms in the form of flakes with black sclerotia of the fungus. Most actively, such diseases develop with increased humidity in warm weather.
In order to prevent fungal diseases, a set of measures should be taken:
- Compliance with crop rotation rules. On the site where the parsnip was grown, again it can be grown only after 3 or 4 years.
- The rules of agricultural technology. It is necessary to strictly follow the agrotechnical rules of this culture.
- Site preparation. Before planting a parsnip on the site, it must be well prepared. Do not forget to clear it of plant debris.
- Presowing preparation of seeds. Before sowing, seeds must be warmed up for 30 minutes in very warm (about 50 degrees) water. Then they are quickly cooled and dried.
- Root crops must be stored correctly.
However, if, in spite of all the preventive measures taken, the first signs of rot appear in the storehouse or in the garden, it is necessary to remove all affected specimens as soon as possible. Healthy ones should be necessarily sprayed with a solution of Bordeaux mixture (1%), Topsin-M or Fundazol.
The greatest danger for such a plant is caraway moth, striped shield bug, field bug and aphid.
Caraway moth contributes to the destruction of the testes of this culture.Caterpillars of such a harmful insect are able to penetrate the shoots, root crops and foliage of the parsnip, they feed on its tissues. After the bushes bloom, the caterpillars wrap inflorescences with their cobwebs and eat flowers, pedicels and seeds, and then again hide in the shoot. To get rid of such caterpillars, the bush must be treated with a decoction of tomato tops. To prepare it, take 1 bucket of freshly boiled water and 3.5 kilograms of tomato tops, the mixture must be left for a couple of days, after which the broth will be ready. It should be filtered and combined with 40 grams of grated soap.
The striped shield bug eats the juice of young buds and ovaries, as a result of which they die.
The field bug is a bug of grayish-green color, which has a length of about 0.4 cm. In the tissues of the bush, females arrange egg-laying. From the eggs, larvae are selected, which suck out the vegetable juice from the tops of the stems and foliage. In those areas where there are punctures, death, yellowing and drying of the tissue are observed, and due to the toxic saliva of such an insect, the seeds become infertile. In regions with a warm climate, during one season, 3 or 4 generations of such a pest are formed. To destroy the striped shield bug and field bug, you can use Actellik or Karbofos.
The aphid poses the greatest danger to such a plant; this pest is the most prolific of all. He sucks the vegetable juice, as a result of which the bushes become frail, deformed, and their development stops. In addition, aphids are the main carrier of viral diseases that are considered incurable. Aphids can be tried to destroy by folk remedies or chemicals are used for this, for example, Biotlin or Antitlin, and in this case the same drugs can help as in the fight against aphids, for example, Confidor. For prevention, all weeds must be removed from the site in a timely manner. And when the whole crop is harvested, the site must be cleaned of plant debris, as well as deep digging it.
Cleaning and storage of parsnips
Harvesting parsnip is necessary in the autumn, after the death of the leaves begins. Root crops are extracted from the soil with a pitchfork, while you need to try not to injure them. If necessary, then harvesting can be postponed until the onset of winter, the fact is that from a low temperature, root crops become much tastier.
It is necessary to work with such a plant by protecting the hands with gloves, since its tops can leave burns on the skin. Root crops are stored in boxes filled with sand, the temperature in the storage should be from 0 to 2 degrees, while the humidity level should be from 80 to 85 percent. It should be noted that when stored in the cellar, root crops become soft, and therefore in areas with a warm climate, where there are no severe frosts in winter, they can not be removed from the soil.
Types and varieties of parsnip
Parsnip species and varieties are not too many. All types of root crops are divided into long and round. Varieties that belong to a long species need a well-developed soil, and to round - they are distinguished by their unpretentiousness.
Also, all varieties are divided by maturity on:
- early ripe - ripening lasts from 110 to 120 days from the day the seedlings appear;
- average maturity - they need 120-140 days;
- late ripening - they ripen in 140 or more days.
The following varieties are most popular:
- Round. This variety is precocious. The shape of root crops is roundly oblate conical, they are painted in whitish-gray color, and weigh about 170 grams. The pulp is white, fragrant and has a whitish-gray core.
- Cook. This precocious variety ripens in 95–105 days. Rosette of leaves is sprawling and small.The cone-shaped, runny root crop is painted in a light cream color, and it weighs about 140 grams, at the base it is roundly flattened. White flesh has a pale gray core.
- White stork. This is an early ripe variety. Smooth root vegetables are painted white, they weigh from 90 to 110 grams. Tasty and juicy pulp is also white. The variety has good keeping quality.
- Boris. This early variety is highly productive. The shape of cream root vegetables is conical, and the white fragrant pulp is very tasty.
- Hormone. In such an early variety, white root crops have a conical shape, they reach about 22 centimeters in length, and up to 5 centimeters across. The root crop is completely immersed in the soil, and it weighs from 110 to 130 grams. Boiled or fried root vegetables are used as a side dish or as a seasoning.
- Delicacy. The variety is medium early. Root crops have a rounded shape and are very well stored, they weigh 200-350 grams, and reach 80 mm in length. The fragrant white flesh has specks of light yellow color.
- Best of all. This variety is medium early. The pointed conical root crop is painted white, it weighs about 200 grams. White pulp is very tasty and fragrant.
- Petrik. This dietary medium-ripening variety for universal use is characterized by high productivity and resistance to disease. A white conical root crop reaches 35 centimeters in length, and 8 centimeters across. The dense whitish-gray pulp is juicy and fragrant.
- Gladiator. This medium-term hybrid is characterized by productivity. Smooth white root crops are cone-shaped. The white pulp is sugary and fragrant.
- Guernsey. Late-ripening variety is characterized by high productivity. Root crops are very well stored, they weigh about 200 grams, and in length reach about 25 centimeters. White tasty pulp fragrant and sweet.
- Student. This late high-yielding variety is resistant to drought. Cone-shaped root vegetables of white color in length reach 30 centimeters and weigh about 160 grams. Tasty fragrant flesh is painted white.
The Heart variety and foreign selection varieties such as: Hollow Crown, Contess, Javelin and Tender and Tru are also quite popular among gardeners.
Parsnip cultivar CULINAR, description, growing experience.
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Parsnip properties: benefits and harms
The healing properties of parsnip
Parsnip root contains carotene, ascorbic acid, carbohydrates, essential oil, mineral salts, and B vitamins (B1, B2, B3). The carbohydrates that make up them are easily digestible, and they contain a fairly large amount of potassium, and it improves blood circulation and digestion, and also positively affects the state of the nervous system. The complex of macro- and microelements and vitamins contained in this plant is very similar in composition to what spinach has. The foliage contains a large amount of essential oils, and the root crop has fructose and sucrose that is harmless to patients with diabetes mellitus, they are 3 times more in parsnips than in carrots.
This plant is unique in that it contains substances that can relieve spasms. If in a timely manner and correctly there is a root crop ground on a grater, then renal or hepatic colic can be removed. This plant also has a tonic, expectorant and analgesic effect. Since ancient times, it has been used as a diuretic for edema, and also as a means of improving appetite, strengthening the walls of capillary vessels and stimulating sexual activity. At the moment, this plant is used in therapy, as well as for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Scientists conducted many experiments that made it possible to find out that the furocoumarins present in the parsnip increase the sensitivity of the skin to ultraviolet rays.This property was used to repigment bleached areas of the epidermis in people with Vitiligo disease.
Root crops are used for the manufacture of preparations “Beroxan” and “Eupiglin,” which are used during the treatment of nesting baldness and vitiligo. And they also produce furocoumarin pastinacin, which is a vasodilator, it is used to prevent angina attacks with heart neurosis and coronary insufficiency, as well as other spastic phenomena.
Previously, to improve mood and appetite, it was recommended to take tincture of the root of this plant on moonshine. In this infusion of root vegetables in the water was used to restore strength in seriously ill patients. And such infusions are characterized by a sedative effect, in connection with this they are recommended for neurosis and insomnia.
Parsnip Useful Properties
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Parsnip and preparations made on its basis cannot be used for people with individual intolerance, and also for patients with photodermatosis - inflammation of the epidermis due to its high sensitivity to sunlight. The fact is that the substances contained in such a root crop enhance this sensitivity. Another parsnip is not recommended for young children and the elderly.