Pelargonium: home care, species, transplantation and reproduction
Pelargonium (Pelargonium) is directly related to the geranium family. This genus unites approximately 350 species of various plants, which are herbaceous perennials, but there are shrubs and succulent plants.
Such a home-grown plant has one unusual property. So, its aroma can soothe and relax some people, while others feel worse when inhaled. Indoor grow only a few species, but the choice is quite rich.
Pelargonium has a rather spectacular appearance. However, this is not all. It contains substances that are used in medicine and perfumery. So, the essential oil obtained from this plant is used to create perfumes and soaps, and it is also used as a part of means for purifying the air of pathogenic bacteria and harmful impurities.
Pelargonium care at home
This plant is quite photophilous and for normal growth it needs direct rays of the sun. Pelargonium is recommended to be placed near the windows of the southern orientation. However, it grows quite normally and develops at the window of the northern orientation, but it is important that the daylight is long enough. Otherwise, the stems are stretched. In summer, if possible, this plant is transferred to fresh air (to the balcony or to the street). The room in which pelargonium is located must be regularly ventilated, as it negatively reacts to stagnant air.
In summer, the plant needs a temperature of 20 to 25 degrees. In winter, it is required to rearrange it in a rather cool place, which ensures normal flowering. In winter, the temperature in the room should not be more than 14 degrees.
How to water
In the summer, watering is recommended to be carried out after 3 or 4 days after the top layer of the substrate dries. You can check the condition of the soil by gently dipping your finger a couple of centimeters. In winter, you need to water a little less, but you need to make sure that the earthen lump does not dry out completely. If the liquid stagnates in the soil during a cool wintering, this can provoke the appearance of root rot, which often leads to the death of the entire bush.
Normally grows and develops with low humidity. Humidifying foliage from a sprayer is not required, but this can be done in the hot summer months.
The plant is fed 1 or 2 times, while the interval between feeding is 2 weeks. Fertilizers are applied to the soil for the first time, when 2 months pass after transplanting. Fertilizing is needed to improve flowering, so fertilizers containing a large amount of phosphorus are chosen. It is not recommended to feed organic fertilizers, because pelargonium is poorly absorbed.
Pruning should be done once a year, while stems with 2–4 nodes should remain. As a result, the bush will be more magnificent, and flowering - abundant. It is necessary to remove yellowed or dried leaves in a timely manner. You can not break off the sheets, since in this case, the torn edges can rot. To remove such leaves, it is recommended to use a very sharp knife, and the cut should be treated with chopped charcoal. After pruning the leaf, the warping of the petiole should remain on the branch.
Young plants are transplanted once a year, and adults as necessary, for example, when the roots cease to fit in the pot. Do not forget to make a good drainage layer at the bottom of the tank. To prepare a suitable soil mixture with your own hands, you will need turf, humus and leafy soil, sand and peat, which should be taken in equal parts.
Propagate such a plant can be cuttings and seeds.
When growing from seeds, very often plants lose varietal characteristics, and this should be remembered when choosing a method of reproduction. A low container should be filled with a soil mixture made from sand, peat and sod land, which should be taken in equal parts. It sows seeds. To seedlings seemed as soon as possible, put the container in a place where the temperature is constantly kept at 22 degrees. Under such favorable conditions, seedlings appear half a month after sowing. Seedlings are transplanted into separate small pots. And after the plants from them grow, they are transplanted into pots, the diameter of which is 9 centimeters. The first time the plant should bloom after a year with a little after sowing, but this is only with proper care.
Apical cuttings are excellent for propagation. Their cutting and rooting is carried out in the last winter or summer weeks. The cut should be done at an angle slightly below the knot, while at least 3 leaves should remain on the handle, and it is better if there are 3-5 of them. Leave the stalk for several hours outdoors to dry. Before planting it, it is necessary to process the places of cut, using chopped charcoal and a root growth stimulator for this. Prepared cuttings should be planted around the perimeter in a container filled with earth mixtures (sand, turf land and peat in equal shares). To increase the splendor of the bush, it is recommended to pinch the stalk. The container is placed in a well-lit place, but the light should be scattered. It is necessary to systematically moisten the ground from the sprayer. Complete rooting will occur 15–20 days after planting. Fortified plants are planted in separate containers. The pot for planting is selected small, since otherwise flowering will be sparse. The plant will bloom after 5-7 months after complete rooting.
Pelargonium: propagation by cuttings
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Some types of pelargonium are poisonous. If you do not know for sure whether the species growing at your place is poisonous, then you need to be careful when working with such a plant. So, you must definitely wash your hands well after working with him.
Diseases and pests
Aphids or whiteflies can settle on pelargonium.
In most cases, problems with the plant are associated with improper care:
- Lack of flowering - Pelargonium is sick, it has harmful insects on it, or it hibernated in a warm, well-lit room.
- The lower leaves fade, turn yellow and rot - plentiful watering. Reduce watering and gently remove affected leaves.
- Swelling appears on the surface of the foliage - water often stagnates in the soil.
- The lower leaves turn yellow and their edges dry out - poor watering.
- The base of the stem turned black - root rot (Black Leg).
- Gray rot - due to too much watering.
Pelargonium (geranium). Care and reproduction // FORUMHOUSE
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The main types
Pelargonium aromatic (Pelargonium graveolens)
This evergreen pubescent shrub branches strongly, and in height it can reach 100 centimeters. Green pubescent leaves are divided into 5-7 shares and have a very pleasant aroma. Umbrella-shaped inflorescences consist of a large number of pinkish flowers. It blooms throughout the summer period.
Pelargonium capitate (Pelargonium capitatum)
This plant is an evergreen shrub, the height of which does not exceed 50 centimeters. On the surface of the stems and leaves there is pubescence. The stems are straight. Green, as if crumpled, leaves are divided into 3-5 parts. The inflorescence has the shape of an umbrella. There are many sedentary flowers painted in light pink with a purple tint. Flowering is observed from the middle to the end of the summer period. It has fragrant foliage.
Fragrant pelargonium (Pelargonium odoratissimum)
The foliage of this shrub does not fall, and its stems are quite short.Round-heart-shaped leaflets in width can reach 5 centimeters. Their edges are slightly torn, and on the surface there are soft short hairs. The foliage is very fragrant and its smell is quite pleasant. Inflorescences in the form of umbrellas. Whitish pink flowers are collected in 8-10 pieces.
Pelargonium zonal (Pelargonium zonale)
These shrubs reach a height of 100 centimeters. On the surface of their fleshy stems is pubescence. As a rule, the sheet plate is solid, but sometimes a little lobed. The foliage is colored green, and a brownish border runs along the edge. The flowers are painted red and collected in multi-flowered inflorescences. Flowering lasts from the end of the spring until the beginning of the autumn period.
Pelargonium napellus (Pelargonium cucullatum)
The birthplace of such an evergreen shrub is South Africa. On its surface there is pubescence. Long leaflets are painted green. An umbrella-shaped inflorescence consists of many violet-red flowers. The plant blooms from the end of the summer period until the beginning of autumn. Terry foliage varieties are available.
Large-flowered pelargonium (Pelargonium grandiflorum)
This is a highly branched evergreen shrub, which can reach a height of 100 centimeters. The kidney-shaped rounded leaflets can be either dissected or lobed. They can also be smooth or pubescent. No more than 3 flowers are formed on the peduncle, and they are painted white, and the existing veins are reddish. The diameter of the flowers is 3-4 centimeters. Such a bush blooms from the middle of the spring to the beginning of the summer period.
Curly Pelargonium (Pelargonium crispum)
Such an evergreen shrub reaches a height of 50 centimeters and is highly branched. Dense leaflets in the shape of a heart, growing in 2 rows, have jagged, torn-wavy edges. Flowering is observed from the middle to the very end of the summer period. On short pedicels 2-3 flowers grow. Has scaly leaves.
Pelargonium soiling (Pelargonium inquinans)
Such a shrub, which is evergreen, can reach a height of 1.5 meters. Has fleshy stems. The rounded leaflets are painted dark green. Inflorescences are in the shape of an umbrella. Short pedicels. Flowers have a red color. Flowering time depends on the care, and can be observed during the summer, autumn, winter or late spring.
Pelargonium fluffy (Pelargonium crithmifolium)
This deciduous plant is a succulent and has thick creeping stems. The leaf plate is divided into a feathery shape of a lobe, the length of which is 8 centimeters. They have a bluish color and can be both pubescent, and without pubescence. Inflorescences are presented in the form of an umbrella. The length of the pedicels is from 15 to 20 millimeters. Snow-white flowers grow in 5 or 6 pieces, and in the throat they have reddish small spots.
Pelargonium pink (Pelargonium radens)
The evergreen, highly branched shrub is pubescent and can reach a height of 50 centimeters. On the sheet plate there is bilateral pubescence, with hard hairs on the front side and soft hairs on the wrong side. Leaflets are quite deeply divided and have curved edges. They are fragrant and have a pleasant aroma. The pubescent peduncle is presented in the form of an umbrella. On the peduncle, several pieces of pink flowers with veins of dark colored flowers grow.
Pelargonium angular (Pelargonium angulosum)
This plant can reach a height of 100 centimeters. The foliage is similar in shape to oak leaves, but the shares are not straight, but wavy. They are short. The inflorescence has the shape of an umbrella, and it consists of a large number of flowers, usually painted in rich red. If you care for the plant correctly, then it will bloom from the end of the summer to the middle of the autumn period.
Quadrangular pelargonium (Pelargonium tetragonum)
This deciduous shrub can reach a height of 0.6-0.7 meters. The tetrahedral straight shoots are painted in a pale green color, sometimes with a grayish tint.On the surface of the petiole leaflets, having the shape of a heart, there are rare hairs. Their width, as a rule, is 5 centimeters. The edges of the leaf plate are brownish red. The flowers have 5 pinkish or cream petals, while 2 smaller petals are on the bottom, and 3 more are on the top.
Pelargonium Pelargonium peltatum
This evergreen shrub is ampelous. The stems are bare or have pubescence. Green, shiny, fleshy leaves have a thyroid shape, smooth edges and are divided into 5 shares. On their surface, there may or may not be pubescence. Flowers are collected in several pieces in an inflorescence in the shape of an umbrella. They are pink, white or red. Flowering lasts from the middle of the spring to the end of the summer period.