Hyssop: cultivation and care of open ground, medicinal properties
The shrub of hyssop officinalis (Hyssopus officinalis), or St. John's wort, or hyssop vulgaris is a species of the genus Hyssop of the family Iasnatkovye. Under natural conditions, such a plant can be found in Western Asia, Eastern, Central and Southern Europe, in North Africa. This plant is cultivated in North America and almost throughout Europe. Hyssop is considered a very ancient healing plant, and Dioscorides and Hippocrates used it to treat patients. Dried and fresh young shoots with foliage are used as a spice for first and second courses, as well as snacks. This plant is included in the diet. At the beginning of the 16th century, a very famous doctor Arnold from Villanova wrote a poem which he devoted to medicinal plants, it was called the Salerms Health Code. About this culture, it contains the following lines: “The chest cleanses the phlegm from the grass, which is called hyssop. Hyssop is useful for the lungs if it is boiled together with honey, And they say that it delivers excellent color to the face.
Short description of growing
- Bloom. In June – October.
- Landing. Sowing seeds in open soil is carried out in April or May, sowing seedlings - from the beginning to mid-March, transplanting seedlings in open soil - from mid to late May.
- Illumination. The site should be well lit.
- Priming. Pre-fertilized calcareous soil should be well-drained and moderately moist.
- Watering. It needs watering only during prolonged droughts, while from 1.5 to 2 buckets of water are taken per 1 square meter of the plot.
- Fertilizer. It is necessary to feed only if necessary, for this they use a solution of complex mineral or organic fertilizer.
- Pruning. At the same time with the collection of medicinal raw materials.
- Breeding. The seeds. It propagates well by self-sowing.
- Harmful insects. Do not settle on the bush.
- Diseases. Rust, rhizoctonia, Fusarium wilt or white spotting.
- Properties. It is a medicinal plant that is characterized by antipyretic, diuretic, laxative, antimicrobial, wound healing, expectorant, antiseptic, bactericidal, analgesic, anthelmintic and stimulating effect.
Hyssop has a woody root. The tetrahedral branched twig-shaped shoots can be practically bare or short pubescent, their length is 0.45-0.7 m, at the base they are woody. Almost sedentary opposite-positioned whole-leaf plates have short petioles and a lanceolate shape, their length is 20–40 mm, and their width is 4–9 mm. In the leaf sinuses there are 3–7 small two-lipped flowers that form the apical inflorescence of a spike-like shape. Flowers can be painted in blue, pink, purple or white. The plant blooms in June – October. All species of such a plant are considered honey plants, and therefore they attract bees to the garden plot. Seeds ripen from mid to late August, while they remain germinating for 3-4 years. Hyssop has a strong spicy smell; it remains green even after the winter period. Hyssop is a spice that is widely used in cooking, and also it is a universal healing remedy.
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Hyssop cultivation from seeds
For the reproduction of hyssop, seeds and the method of dividing the bush are used. In open soil, seeds are sown in April or May. Such a plant can also be grown through seedlings; for this, seed without pre-sowing stratification is sown in seedling boxes filled with a nutrient substrate. Sowing is carried out from the beginning until mid-March in grooves, the distance between which should be about 50-100 mm.From above, the container with crops needs to be covered with a plastic film, which should be transparent, then it is cleaned in a warm place.
The first seedlings should appear after 15 days. To grow seedlings, it must be systematically watered and fed. Planting of plants in open soil is carried out after they have formed 5 or 6 real leaf plates. However, for a fortnight before transplanting into open ground, they should be hardened, for this seedlings are transferred to the street every day. First, it should be in the fresh air for about 30 minutes, the duration of such a procedure should be increased gradually until the plants can not arrive on the street around the clock.
Hyssop can be grown at the same place without transplanting for about 10 years, in this regard, the choice of a suitable site should be taken with all responsibility. Such a plant needs a lot of sunlight, as well as calcareous well-drained, moderately moist soil. In autumn, during deep digging, it is necessary to add potassium salt, manure and a small amount of superphosphate into it. Areas that are swampy or saline are not suitable for cultivating such crops as those in which groundwater lies very close to the surface of the soil.
Time and landing rules
Planting in open soil is carried out when the plants grow from 45 to 60 days from mid to late May, while spring return frosts should be left behind. Seedlings are planted in loose soil, while observing the distance between the plants from 8 to 10 centimeters, and the distance between the rows should be from 25 to 30 centimeters. Planted plants need watering.
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To grow hyssop in your area is quite simple. To do this, if necessary, water the bushes, regularly loosen the surface of the soil, at first tear out all the weed grass immediately after its appearance, and also feed the plantlet in a timely manner. Watering such a plant is carried out only during prolonged drought, while from 1.5 to 2 buckets of water is taken per 1 square meter of the plot. However, the bushes look fresh even in severe drought and, as a rule, they only need natural rainfall. If the bushes grow very slowly, then to feed them, you must use a solution of complex mineral fertilizers (1 bucket of water from 20 to 30 grams), but experts recommend using organic fertilizers for this purpose. Poor flowering of hyssop is due to the fact that the soil contains an excessively large amount of fertilizer, to which the plant reacts extremely negatively.
Formative pruning is carried out at the same time with the collection of medicinal raw materials. The bushes are pruned very easily, and after growing they grow back quickly. In winter, they do not need shelter. In autumn, pruning of hyssop stems is carried out to a height of 10 to 15 centimeters. Such a procedure is necessary to stimulate lush flowering and to make the bush more dense next year. If this plant is cultivated to obtain medicinal raw materials, self-seeding should not be allowed, since this causes a weakening of the medicinal properties of hyssop. In order to prevent self-seeding, weed must be systematically removed and the bushes trimmed before the seeds begin to ripen.
Despite the fact that this culture can be grown on the same site for about 10 years, experts advise rejuvenating the bush once every 4 years, because it begins to bloom much worse. In order to rejuvenate hyssop, use the method of cuttings or the bush is removed from the ground, divided into parts and planted in a new place.
Diseases and pests
This plant is very resistant to diseases and harmful insects, but in some cases it can get rhizoctonia, white spotting, rust or fusarium wilt. For the treatment of affected bushes, a solution of a fungicidal preparation is used. Specialists advise not to let the bush get sick, for this it is enough to properly care for it and adhere to the rules of crop rotation. After the bush is trimmed in autumn, the area is cleaned of plant debris.
No harmful insect can harm hyssop, as its smell repels them. It is also noted that pests do not settle on crops growing next to this plant.
What can be grown after hyssop
The site where hyssop used to grow is great for growing peas, tomatoes, garlic, beans, potatoes and onions.
Types and varieties of hyssop
Cretaceous hyssop looks very similar to officinal hyssop: it is also a shrub, the height of which varies from 0.2 to 0.5 m. Cretaceous hyssop has blue flowers with a sharp balsamic aroma. This species is quite rare, and he prefers to grow on Cretaceous deposits. It is listed in the Red Book of Ukraine.
Anise hyssop is also a shrub, its height varies from 0.5 to 1.1 m. There are brown-violet tan spots on the surface of green leafy plates, the foliage has a pleasant anise odor, which is greatly enhanced by rubbing it. Flowers of this species have a lavender color, they are eaten, added to various salads.
A detailed description of hyssop officinalis can be found at the beginning of this article; the following varieties of this species are most popular:
- Chord. The medium ripening variety is resistant to disease and frost. The color of the flowers is pink.
- Pink mist. This medium-ripening variety is resistant to drought, frost and heat. The flowers are painted in pale pink.
- Amethyst. The height of the bush is from 30 to 35 centimeters, and in diameter it reaches from 0.4 to 0.5 m. The color of the flowers is pink, flowering begins in the last summer weeks, and ends in late autumn.
- Frost. The medium-ripening variety is characterized by productivity. The color of the flowers is white.
- Otradny Semko. The height of the semi-spreading bush is from 0.5 to 0.6 m, it is decorated with small flowers of a dark blue color.
The following varieties are also popular: Pink Flamingo, Dawn, Healer, Nikitsky White, etc.
Hyssop properties: harm and benefits
The healing properties of hyssop
Hyssop has medicinal properties that people have been using for a long time. The plant contains many vitamins: A, B, C, E, K, D and PP. Roots and foliage are rich in iron, copper, manganese, potassium, selenium, chlorine, silicon, fluorine, tungsten and boron. The composition of this plant also includes tannins, bitterness, aldehydes, oleanolic and ursolic acids, flavonoids, alcohols and essential oils.
Varieties with pink flowers contain a minimum amount of essential oil, and varieties with white flowers have a maximum. This plant is characterized by antipyretic, diuretic, laxative, antimicrobial, wound healing, expectorant, antiseptic, bactericidal, analgesic, anthelmintic and stimulating effect. Such a plant is used for colds and infectious diseases, as well as diseases of the respiratory tract and oral cavity, inflammation of the urinary tract, rheumatism, neurosis, angina pectoris, colitis, bloating, conjunctivitis and skin diseases.
In order to improve the health of the body, the roots and foliage of hyssop are used, and flowers are also used which, when dried, are added to tea for various diseases. However, the most popular are such preparations made on the basis of hyssop, such as: tincture, decoction or infusion.
For diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, as well as for the treatment of wounds, bruises, burns and other injuries of the skin, tincture is used. Infusions are used to wash the eyes with conjunctivitis and to gargle with stomatitis. For diseases of the upper respiratory tract, inflammation of the urinary tract and colds, decoctions are used. Tea with such a plant is used for cough, sore throat and colds, it helps to lower the temperature, increase blood pressure, and also calms the nerves.
Medicinal herbs: top 10: hyssop officinalis, properties in medicine
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Such a plant is considered slightly poisonous, in this regard, it must be used with extreme caution in food and for medicinal purposes. That is why, before you start taking hyssop, you must always consult a qualified specialist. It should be remembered that with large doses or with prolonged use, cramping may occur. This plant is not recommended for use by women during pregnancy, children under 12 years old, as well as people with hypertension, kidney disease or high acidity of the stomach. This plant can not be taken during breastfeeding, as it contains components that can reduce or completely stop lactation.