Fennel: cultivation and care in the open field, useful properties
The herbaceous plant Fennel vulgaris (Foeniculum vulgare) is considered a species of the genus Fennel of the Umbrella family. In the people it is also called Voloshsky dill, or pharmacy. Under natural conditions, fennel can be found in Western Europe (in France, Spain, Italy, England and Portugal), in North Africa (in Libya, Algeria, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia) and in Southeast Europe (in Bulgaria, the countries of the former Yugoslavia , Greece and Albania). In addition, such a culture can be found in Central, North and South America, Central and West Asia, as well as New Zealand. She prefers to grow in ditches, on rocky slopes and in weedy places.
They grow such a culture in a large number of countries. The first mention of fennel was found in the herbalists of Ancient India, which were written about 5 thousand years ago. Such a plant was also known in Ancient China, it was used there for cosmetic and culinary purposes, it was also known in Ancient Egypt, it was believed that, in addition to its healing and taste properties, it has power over evil spirits. The ancient Saxons also believed that such a plant has mystical properties, they used bunches of such grass to protect their homes from witchcraft. The Greeks used fennel as a means of having a choleretic, diuretic and abortive effect, and it was also used to get rid of fleas. In the writings of Dioscorides, Avicenna, Hippocrates, and Pliny, mention is made of such a plant. In the Middle Ages, this culture began to be grown throughout Europe and it was dedicated by the Czech doctor Mattiol, who served at the court of Archduke Ferdinand, entitled “The Power and Effect of Fennel”. In the 18th century, pharmacist Stevens created a cure for kidney and stomach diseases based on fennel, which is highly effective; the English parliament decided to pay him decent compensation for the fact that this recipe was made public. This plant is used as a spice by national cuisines of a large number of countries, among which there are both Asian and European.
Short description of growing
- Landing. Use the winter sowing of seeds in open soil, which is carried out in October. You can also sow them at the beginning of spring (in April), in areas with a warm climate, sowing of dry seeds on the beds is carried out in July or August.
- Illumination. Needs plenty of sunlight.
- Priming. The soil should be light loamy or sandy loam.
- Watering. On average, bushes are watered once every 5 days, with 1 to 1.5 buckets of water taken per 1 square meter of beds. It is necessary to increase the number of irrigation during prolonged drought or if fennel grows on light soil.
- Fertilizer. It is recommended to feed this culture with a solution of chicken droppings (1:20) or mullein (1:10), and for this they use an infusion of grass. During the season, the bushes must be fed a couple of times: when they will be thinned out and after the formation of peduncles begins.
- Hilling. It is only necessary to cultivate vegetable varieties twice or thrice during the season to a height of 30 to 70 mm.
- Breeding. The seed method, and most often use vegetative propagation (division of the rhizome).
- Harmful insects. Wireworms, Maybug larvae, scoop caterpillars and meadow moths.
- Diseases. Cercosporosis, root and stem rot, or rust.
- Properties. This spicy herb has a mild disinfectant, antispasmodic and weak diuretic effect.
Fennel is cultivated as an annual, biennial or perennial. The spindle-shaped root is fleshy and wrinkled, in the upper part it is highly branched. The color of all aerial parts of the plant is green with a pale blue bloom.The height of the highly branched roundish straight stem varies from 0.9 to 2 m. Cirrus leaf-spaced leaf plates are four or three times dissected, the lower foliage has petioles, and the upper one is sitting on the vagina of a narrowly oblong shape, 30-50 mm long, extended to the apex . Double umbellate inflorescences in diameter reach 3-15 centimeters, they consist of yellow flowers. Bushes bloom in July –August. The fruit is a bare, ovate of an oblong shape of brown-green color, its taste is sweet, its length is from 0.5 to 1 cm, and its width is from 0.2 to 0.3 cm. The fruits fall into 2 parts, their ripening is observed in September .
How to grow fennel, part 1
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Growing fennel from seeds
Sowing in soil
For the propagation of fennel use the seed method and the method of division of the rhizome. Seed remains viable for 2-3 years. Use as winter sowing seeds, so they are sown at the beginning of the spring period. In warm regions, dry seed is used to grow fennel as a perennial, which is sown in open soil in July or August. When purchasing the seeds of this culture, it should be borne in mind that there are 2 varieties of seed: the first variety is used to produce aromatic greens, and the second is vegetable, when grown, get greens, as well as cabbage heads with high taste.
For sowing this crop, it is recommended to select those areas where snow accumulation was observed in winter. Fennel is thermophilic and therefore it grows very poorly in shaded places. Light loamy or sandy loamy soils are well suited for cultivation. Good predecessors for such a plant are row crops and winter crops, as well as grassy annual plants. In the neighborhood with fennel, spinach, peppers, beans, tomatoes, beans and caraway seeds cannot be grown, because it contributes to the inhibition of the growth of such plants. Experts advise growing this culture next to cabbage and cucumbers, as it repels a common pest like aphids with its aroma.
If sowing will be carried out in the spring, then the preparation of the site should be done in the autumn. To do this, liming of acidic soil is carried out, and after at least 15 days, 2 tbsp. l superphosphate, 1 bucket of compost or humus and 2 liters of stale sawdust per 1 square meter of land. In spring, before starting to sow seeds, the surface of the site is loosened and leveled. For sowing in the winter, it is recommended to select those areas in the soil of which fertilizers were applied for the previous crops. It is not necessary to add fertilizer to the soil specifically before planting this plant, because of this it will ripen very slowly.
During sowing, the seed must be buried in the soil by 20 mm, while the row spacing should be no less than 0.6 m. when the first seedlings appear. One and a half weeks after the emergence of seedlings, they will need thinning, while the distance between the plants of vegetable varieties should be from 20 to 30 centimeters, and between green seedlings - from 10 to 15 centimeters. In regions with a fairly cold climate, fennel is recommended to be grown through seedlings.
Growing fennel from seeds
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To grow this culture on your site is quite simple. Such a plant should be provided with timely watering, weeding, top dressing, it must also be protected from diseases and harmful insects, and also, during one season, loosen the surface of the earth between the rows 3 times.If vegetable varieties are grown, then they need to be bored twice or thrice during the growing season to a height of 30 to 70 mm. This is necessary in order to whiten the heads of cabbage, and even after hilling, they become more fleshy and juicy.
How to water
This plant loves water. If it rains regularly in the summer, then on average it will need to be watered once every 5 days, while from 1 to 1.5 buckets of water are taken per 1 square meter of the garden. If the crop is grown on light soil, then watering should become more frequent. Particular attention should be paid to watering when growing vegetable varieties, since if they do not have enough water, this will negatively affect the quality of the endings, while the bushes themselves can go into the stem. It should also be remembered that with insufficient watering, the bushes begin to start their roots on adjacent beds.
When it rains or the fennel is watered, the surface of the earth around the bushes must be loosened without fail. To reduce the number of watering, weeding and loosening, the surface of the beds should be covered with a layer of mulch.
Best of all, fennel responds to top dressing with mullein. In order to cook it, you need to combine water with cow manure in a ratio of 10: 1. You can also use a solution of chicken droppings, but in this case, water and organics are combined in a ratio of 20: 1. You can still feed this culture with the infusion of grass. In total, during the growing season, the bushes need to be fed 2 times. The first time the fertilizer is fertilized immediately after the seedlings are thinned, and the second when the green arrows begin to form flower arrows, and when growing the headed varieties 4 weeks after the first feeding.
Fennel greens are cut after the height of the bushes is 0.3 m, the fact is that at this time it has the most saturated smell. Cut the greens in the early morning, before the dew has dried up, or in the evening, when the sun sets.
You can start collecting heads of cabbage after they reach 10 centimeters across. Heads of cabbage need to be cut to the very root, but at the same time petioles with foliage about 20 centimeters long should remain on them. The cut-off heads of cabbage should be laid out in a shaded place in the fresh air, where they should stay for a while. Then all petioles are cut from them, except for one, which is shortened to 10 centimeters, then they are removed for storage. They are stored buried in sand in a cool place, as they can be stored in the refrigerator for no longer than half a month.
As a rule, the first flowering is observed only in the second year after sowing fennel. And the collection of seeds can be carried out only after the bushes have faded. It will be possible to collect them only when the pale green inflorescences change their color to brownish yellow. Trim them carefully and hang them in a well-ventilated, dry, cool room to dry, with newspaper sheets placed under them. After the umbrellas dry well, they will need to shake the seeds on a leaf. When they are separated from plant debris, they are scattered on bags made of paper. They are stored in a dark and dry place.
How to grow fennel h 2
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Pests and diseases of fennel with photos and names
Fennel is characterized by a fairly high resistance to disease, but still it sometimes suffers from stem or root rot, cercosporosis or rust.
If the bush is sick with cercosporosis, angular small spots of yellow color form on all its green parts. Over time, the color of the spots becomes darker, they merge with each other. The affected parts of the bush turn yellow, and then die. For prevention purposes, crops should not be allowed to thicken.The affected bushes should be sprayed with a solution of Bordeaux mixture (1%), Kaptana or Kuprozan.
Due to root rot, fennel dies. At first, the drooping of the foliage is observed, and then it fades, becomes brown and dies. If you dig a hole near the bush with a depth of 15 centimeters, you can find the blackened roots. The affected plant must be dug up and removed from the site along with soil that is adjacent to the roots. If the disease was detected at the initial stage of development, it is recommended to stop watering the fennel, as well as spray it with a solution of the fungicidal preparation.
In plants affected by stem rot, shoots and stems are damaged. First, rotting of part of the stem or shoot is observed, after which it dies. In some cases, foliage is affected as well. As a rule, the plant rots at the level of the soil surface, and also higher, while the first symptom of the disease is the appearance of a white coating, then small brown spots form on the surface of the stem. After the signs of this disease are found on the bush, you need to stop watering it, then you need to remove plaque, and cover the affected areas with a strong solution of potassium permanganate, after which the plants are dusted with wood ash.
If the bush is affected by rust, which is a fungal disease, then on its aerial parts brownish-orange tubercles appear, as well as pustules that cause increased evaporation of moisture. If the plant is very affected, then the foliage begins to fly around it. As soon as the first symptoms of the disease are noticed, you need to cut off all the affected stems and foliage, then spray the fennel with a solution of the fungicidal preparation.
Fennel has the ability to deter various pests, but keep in mind that many cultures cannot get along with it. For example, aphids, fleas, snails and wood lice never settle on it, so it is recommended to place a bed with such a plant next to vegetable crops, which often suffer from them. But this is only if these cultures can get along with fennel. However, larvae of the May beetle, meadow moths, wireworms, and also scoop caterpillars can harm him.
The meadow moth is a multi-eating harmful insect that can greatly harm the garden. In length, such a butterfly reaches 10 mm, in females the wingspan is about 26 centimeters, and in males - up to 20 centimeters. The color of the front wings is brownish-gray with dark spots; a yellow stripe is located at the outer edge. Hind wings are gray with 2 stripes. The black-headed caterpillar of such a moth has a gray-green color, while a dark strip runs along the back. This pest is notable for its fertility, therefore it is very dangerous for cultivated plants. Caterpillars eat everything that comes across on their way, and only petioles and veins remain from the foliage. Butterflies themselves eat nectar, in connection with this, during the mass summer years of meadow moths, a noticeable reduction in the amount of honey produced in this area often occurs. Such years occur 1 time in 8-10 years, at which time gardeners and gardeners have to work hard to preserve the harvest. Various methods are used to destroy moths. If there are comparatively few pests in the area, then they can be collected manually, but it must be borne in mind that the more weeds in the area, the higher the likelihood of moths settling on it. If there are a lot of harmful insects, then chemical preparations must be used to destroy them, while Metaphos, Decis, Fufanon, Phosphamide and Karbofos are most effective.
Winter scoops are also a multi-eating harmful insect, which is very widespread.The color of the front wings is dark gray, almost black, with 3 stripes of an even darker shade on them, as well as a thin border of black color. In the female, the hind wings are light brown, and in the male, they are white. The caterpillars of such an insect are painted in earthy-gray color, and at the late stage of development, a dark strip forms on their back. Butterflies and their caterpillars, which are very voracious, can harm this culture. In order to prevent, you need to adhere to the rules of agricultural technology of fennel, and also systematically carry out weeding. If there are a lot of scoops on the site, then treatment with an insecticidal preparation, which is used to combat the meadow moth, will be required (see above).
Fennel has few varieties. Varieties of oilseed varieties:
- Chernivtsi 3. Maturation of this variety is observed for 135-150 days.
- Crimean. This variety is notable for its compactness and is less tall. It ripens 15 days earlier compared to the Chernivtsi 3 variety. Due to the fact that its inflorescences are located at the same height, it is quite easy to harvest.
In addition to these varieties, greens with a high content of essential oils and medicinal fragrant fruits give such varieties as: Zephyr, Crimean Oksamit, Mertsishor. Pepper variety has a burning taste.
Breeders from Italy and Russia mainly work on the cultivation of vegetable varieties of fennel. The following Russian varieties are most popular among gardeners - Corvette, Luzhnikovsky Semko, Soprano, Rondo, Aromat, Casanova: the height of the bushes is from 0.5 to 0.6 m, ripen in 60–70 days, the weight of heads of cabbage is on average 0.25 kg. The following vigorous late Russian varieties are also popular - Leader and Autumn Beauty: the height of the bushes differing in a delicate smell is about 1.8 m, the color of the leaves is pale blue. Hybrid early ripening variety Udalets is also widely known, after only 40–55 days after emergence, a dense head of whitish color weighing 100–350 grams grows, while in diameter it reaches from 10 to 18 centimeters.
The most popular are the Italian varieties Sicilian, Zelma, Carmo, Florentine, Italian round, Bologna: the height of the bushes is about 0.6 m, and the heads of cabbage in diameter reach 15 centimeters. However, it should be borne in mind that when grown in mid-latitudes, such varieties are prone to shooting. The best varieties grow in the middle lane: Zeta Fino, Cantino, Romanesco and the Dutch hybrid Rudi, they are also highly resistant to flowering. The most popular table varieties of fennel are Grebneva and Ogorodny.
Properties of fennel: harm and benefits
Useful properties of fennel
Since ancient times, people used fennel as a remedy. The essential medicinal value is possessed by plant essential oils and fruits in powder form. However, in cooking, only foliage, seeds and heads of such a plant are used. It contains vitamins A, C, B1, B2, B3, B5, B6 and B9, calcium, sodium, selenium, magnesium, copper, zinc, potassium, iron, chromium and aluminum, ash and dietary fiber. The fatty oils contained in this plant include valuable acids such as linoleic, petrozelinic, palmitic and oleic.
Fennel and products made on its basis are distinguished by a disinfectant, mild antispasmodic, as well as a weak diuretic effect. Fennel is recommended for newborns with intestinal cramps in the first months of life, but you must always adhere to the dosage prescribed by your doctor. Famous for many dill water is prepared using the fruits of this plant. Fennel essential oil cleanses the body of toxins and toxins, so it is often used after heavy feasts or after eating fatty foods. The powder of this plant is used in the manufacture of cough tablets, because it has an expectorant effect.It is recommended to use this plant for the following diseases: pneumonia, tonsillitis, laryngitis, bronchitis, SARS, laryngotracheitis. Fennel and products made on its basis contribute to the restoration of appetite, which was lost during the illness, and also improve digestion. Due to this, it is used for various diseases of the digestive tract, including during constipation. During pregnancy, fennel-based products are used to eliminate toxicosis attacks, and after childbirth they are used to normalize digestion. In addition, in lactating women, such drugs contribute to the stimulation of lactation. Still this plant is used in cosmetology and in perfumery.
Fennel is most often used as:
- antimicrobial drug;
- a drug that strengthens the immune system and heals wounds;
- cancer prophylactic;
- anti-inflammatory agent;
- a drug that normalizes the work of the digestive tract;
- an agent that improves metabolism in the body;
- a drug that stimulates lactation;
- a tool that supports and normalizes the work of the heart.
Fennel Useful Properties
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Some people may have an individual intolerance to such a plant. People with epilepsy, pregnant women and with diarrhea are recommended to use fennel very carefully and in small doses. In addition, if a person has poor health, then using this plant in too much can contribute to the development of bleeding.