Gaylardiya: planting and care in the open ground, types and varieties with photos
Gaillardia (Gaillardia), which is also called Gaillardia or Gaillardia, is directly related to the genus of the aster family. This genus unites about 25 species. In the wild, such plants can be found in North and South America. This flower is represented by annual or perennial plants, characterized by drought tolerance. The name of this plant was given in honor of the Frenchman Gaillard de Charenton. He was a philanthropist and patron of botany, as well as a member of the Paris Academy of Sciences. He lived in the 18th century.
The height of such a plant can reach 0.9 m. It has direct densely branching shoots, on the surface of which there is pubescence. Ordinary simple leaf plates can be lanceolate or oval, they have a serrated edge. On long peduncles are single inflorescences-baskets. They include red-purple marginal tridentate flowers, as well as median tubular, which most often have a dark red color. Terry, semi-terry and simple baskets are found. In semi-double inflorescences, reed flowers are placed in 2 or 3 rows. Terry inflorescences include overgrown funnel-shaped median flowers. It blooms profusely. The fruit is an achene with a crest. As a perennial, beautiful haylardia is cultivated, and as a perennial - hybrid haylardia and spinous haylardia. Gailardia is often confused with gelenium, but these are 2 different flowers.
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Gailardia cultivation from seeds
How to sow
Gailardia, which is an annual, is grown through seedlings using seeds. They are sown in February or March. Large seeds of the plant should be distributed over the surface of moist soil and sprinkled with a thin layer of vermiculite (you can not sprinkle). Seed containers should be removed in a well-lit and warm (20 to 23 degrees) place, while protection from direct sunlight is necessary. Humidify the substrate only if necessary. The first seedlings can be seen in 7-15 days.
After the first seedlings appear, the container must be rearranged in a cool (18 to 20 degrees) place. The best place for seedlings to grow is a cold greenhouse. That's all, because such a plant requires not only coolness, but also high humidity. After the appearance of the first pair of real leaf plates, seedlings should be planted more freely. Watering should be done as soon as the top layer of the soil mixture dries. The optimal daylight hours for seedlings are from 14 to 16 hours. In connection with this, plants will need additional illumination with fluorescent lamps. Otherwise, a lack of light and high humidity can trigger the development of gray rot.
How to plant in open ground
What time to land?
Annual gaillardia seedlings should be planted in open soil from the second half of August or in September. The landing site should be well lit. The soil should be light, well-drained and saturated with nutrients. It should be remembered that such a flower negatively reacts to stagnation of liquid in the soil, to acidic soil and to fertilizing. Before landing, it is necessary to 1 m2 make a bucket of humus (compost), a handful of mineral fertilizer and 1 tbsp. wood ash. This should be done under digging.
How to plant
Landing should be done in the middle of the day in the sun. The distance between the holes should be done from 20 to 25 centimeters. Then the seedlings must be watered. Before the arrival of winter, the flowers become ill and take root well. The first flowering you can see next year. Gailardia needs to be transplanted once every 4–5 years.
If you do not want to bother with growing seedlings, then sow the seeds directly into the open soil.Gailardia, which is a perennial, is grown in this way. Sowing of seeds is carried out in July-September, while they do not need to be planted in the soil. During the year, only 10 to 15 leaf blades will appear on the plant. Flowering can only be seen next year in spring.
GAYLARD POSEV Video tutorial by Olga Chernova January 27, 2017
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To plant and grow such flowers is easy. For such a plant, only good illumination is most important, while everything else is too important for it. Water the plant only during a long, dry, hot period. At the same time, watering should be moderate. But you need to remove weeds and loosen the soil regularly. Gailardia bloom lasts more than 8 weeks, but in order to make it even longer, it is recommended to pick in a timely manner, which began to fade inflorescences. Varieties that are tall must be tied. Also, this flower must be fed 3 times during the season, for this they use full complex fertilizer. Top dressing is carried out during the appearance of buds, during flowering, as well as in autumn, about 4 weeks before the cold. Remember that manure for feeding is prohibited.
We should not forget that gaillardia needs to be transplanted on time, or rather, once every 5 years. During transplantation, flower propagation is also often done by dividing the rhizome.
Gailardia can be propagated not only by seeds, but also by division of the rhizome. After a perennial bush turns 4 or 5 years old, its root system must be dug up and divided into several parts. It should be borne in mind that each of the delenoks must have a certain number of stems and roots. Delenki should be planted in new permanent places. The transplant procedure is recommended in spring.
Root cuttings are also suitable for reproduction. It is necessary to dig a curtain around the perimeter, after which it is necessary to find and cut off the largest roots. They are cut into five-seven-centimeter segments, the rooting of which is carried out in a greenhouse.
Pests and diseases
Often aphids and whiteflies live on the plant. To destroy them, you need to process the bush with Actellic or Decis, but before the procedure you need to study the instructions attached to the tool. If you violate the rules of care, then the flowers can get sick with gray rot, spotting, powdery mildew, white rust. In order to get rid of such fungal diseases, the following fungicidal agents should be used: Hom, Bordeaux mixture, colloidal sulfur, Oksikhom or Topaz. A bush infected with white rust is recommended to be treated with Skor.
In order to get seeds from your own gaillardia, you should leave a few wilted inflorescences before the onset of the autumn period. In order for the seeds not to spill out, the inflorescences should be wrapped with gauze, which is fixed on the stem. However, it should be borne in mind that plants grown from seeds cannot preserve the varietal characteristics of the mother plant. In this regard, before collecting seeds, you need to think about whether you need them.
You can not collect seeds. Inflorescences are left, but they are not tied with gauze. Seeds that have fallen to the surface of the soil will sprout with the onset of spring. Seedlings will only need to be thinned and, if necessary, planted.
Gaylardia. Collect the seeds with me!
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Wintering of Gaylardia perennial
Before the first wintering, young leaflets need to cut off completely all leaf plates flush with the soil surface. After this, the plants should be covered with dry foliage or covered with spruce branches. Plants do not need to be covered for the next winter. Harboring gaillardia is necessary annually only if it is cultivated in an area with little snow and frosty winter.
Main types and varieties with photos and names
Among gardeners, gaillardia varieties, which are both perennial and annual, are very popular.
Beautiful Gaillardia (Gaillardia pulchella)
Beautiful Gaillardia is the most popular among flower growers among annual varieties. The bush of this flower grows sprawling. At the tops of thin and fairly high peduncles are inflorescence baskets, which in diameter can reach from 6 to 7 centimeters. The color of the reed petals is very spectacular. So, it changes from red-purple or pink-purple at the base to yellow at the tips of the petals. Tubular flowers have a very spectacular color, namely: brown-red. Such a plant has several fairly common varieties:
- Painted (picta) - has very large inflorescences, which can be terry or semi-double. Such inflorescences-baskets can be painted in different colors, namely: saturated red or yellow-red (two-color).
- Lorenza - Terry inflorescences-baskets in it are very large spherical in shape. The composition of such inflorescences includes yellow-red or yellow tubular funnel-shaped flowers having a dentate limb.
The most popular varieties:
- Red plume - inflorescences-baskets of this variety are terry. They include tubular funnel-shaped flowers, they have a terracotta color.
- Yellow plume - Terry baskets of spherical shape consist of yellow tubular flowers.
Varieties such as Lolipups and Jayeti are also quite popular in the culture. But the annual gaillardia blunt (Gaillardia amblyodon) does not enjoy such great love of gardeners.
Gaillardia spinosa (Gaillardia aristata)
Spiny gaillardia is a perennial that is relatively popular among gardeners. The birthplace of such a plant is North America. Direct shoots bend in the lower part, and on the surface they have a dense pubescence. The height of such a bush can vary from 30 to 75 centimeters. The shape of the leaf plates may be oval, oblong or lanceolate. They are solid or toothed, and there is pubescence on their surface. Stem leaves are sessile, and basal leaves are petiolate. Single baskets in diameter reach 12 centimeters. Their composition includes motley and very bright reed flowers, which are most often painted in yellow, orange or copper-red color of various shades. Tubular flowers are purplish yellow. The beginning of flowering occurs in June. Cultivated since 1812. Garden forms of this species are united by one name - large-flowered gaillardia (Gaillardia grandiflora). The most popular varieties are:
- Mandarin - there are reed yellow-red flowers.
- Virral Flame - there are reed red flowers with yellow bordering.
- Dazzer - the tips of the reed flowers are yellow, and at the base they are dark red.
Hybrid gaillardia (Gaillardia hybrida)
This species was born through the crossing of a beautiful Gaillardia with other types of Gaillardia. In height, the shoots reach about 0.8 m. Flowering begins in June-August. Inflorescence baskets can be semi-double, simple and terry, and in their color there are mainly yellow, red and brown color shades. The most popular varieties:
- Primavera - a short, compact bush in height can reach about 25 centimeters. In total, up to 8 peduncles can be formed from one outlet, on the tops of which there are large (diameter about 12 centimeters) inflorescences.
- Arizona San - a dwarf bush in height can reach only 20 centimeters. It blooms very luxuriantly and for a long time from the beginning of the summer period until the frosts.
- Sonne - in height the bush reaches from 0.5 to 0.6 m. The color of the reed flowers is golden yellow, while the tubular ones are dark yellow.
Also, a perennial species such as the lanceolate gaillardia (Gaillardia lanceolata) is sometimes cultivated.
Gaillardia - Thousands of Sun Rays. Care.
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