Tuberose (polyantes): planting and care in the open ground, growing
The tuberose plant (tuberosa), or polyanthes (polianthes) is part of the Amaryllis family, and it comes from Central America. This flowering plant is highly decorative. Its magnificent flowers have a pleasant strong aroma, which becomes brighter in the evening. In middle latitudes, this flower can be met infrequently, as many gardeners are afraid to not cope with such a capricious plant. But those who decided to decorate their garden plot with them do not regret it at all. Experienced gardeners argue that if you take care of the plant correctly and choose a suitable site for it, it will look very impressive, and bloom for a long time.
Features of tuberose
Tuberose is a herbaceous perennial and is highly decorative. The bush has an onion-shaped cone-shaped tuber, the surface of which is covered with dense small brown scales. In diameter, these flakes reach from 20 to 60 mm. At the bottom of the bulbs there are thin, threadlike roots. The life expectancy of the corm is 1 to 2 years. During this period, she appears foliage, stems, after which the formation of buds is observed. When the flowering of the bush ends, the onion of an adult bulb dies, with several young children remaining instead.
The height of an upright slender stem is about 0.9 m. Dense sessile and narrow leaf plates can reach about 0.4 meters in length and up to 30 millimeters in width, they are painted dark green and have a rough surface. Their formation occurs in the lower part of the stem.
During flowering, a spike-shaped inflorescence is formed at the top of the shoot, which includes 10 to 40 buds. Tubular flowers in diameter reach about 50 mm, and in length - up to 60 mm. Pinkish smooth and dense petals at the tops are pointed. The opening of the buds occurs alternately, with the first ones that are in the lower part of the inflorescence to bloom. Each of the flowers after opening dies away after three days. Inflorescences have a sharp, but pleasant smell. Flowering is long, and it is observed from July to October. In place of wilted flowers, fruits are formed, which are boxes of an elongated oval shape, inside which there are very small seeds of a flat shape.
Most often, this perennial plant is cultivated in room conditions, and a well-lit window sill is chosen for it. In middle latitudes, this flower is often grown in open ground as an annual plant. Species and varieties with double flowers are especially popular.
Garden cultivation and care
If you want to decorate your garden with tuberose, then you need to consider that this plant is quite demanding on care and on growing conditions. Therefore, care should be taken correctly and systematically. However, it is resistant to various environmental changes, for example, sudden changes in temperature or transplant. Therefore, if you follow all the rules of care, then your work will certainly be rewarded. Your garden plot will be decorated for a long time with a lush fragrant plant with very spectacular inflorescences.
When choosing a suitable place for tuberose in the garden, remember that it is distinguished by its light and heat lovingness. If the light is excessively small, then this will negatively affect the decorativeness of this bulbous perennial. First of all, pay attention to the fact that polyantes can grow well only in an open area. But on hot days in the afternoon, bushes should be protected from the scorching rays of the sun, otherwise burns may form on their foliage, which will lead to a loss of decorativeness.If the plant is planted in a slight shade, then its flowering will not be so spectacular and magnificent. On tuberose grown in the shade, inflorescences do not form at all.
Getting ready to plant tuberose
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If you are determined to cultivate tuberose in your garden plot, then pay special attention to the fact that this is a very thermophilic plant. It will grow well only in regions with a rather mild and warm climate. Note that during the growing season, the air temperature should be from 20 degrees and above. If on the street it will be cooler than 16 degrees, then this will extremely negatively affect the condition and development of the plant. The flower reacts extremely cold to cold. If he does not receive enough heat, then his development, growth and flowering will stop.
Fertile and light soil is ideal for growing polyantheses. It should include: turf and leaf soil, as well as sand, taken in equal proportions.
How to water
Such a flower is also distinguished by its moisture lovingness. For normal development, he needs high humidity. Water the bush should be moderate, for this they use well-settled water, which should not be cold. When the bush is watered, do not forget to loosen the surface of the soil near it. This will help to avoid stagnation of fluid in the root system, which can cause the development of rot and death of the plant.
Tuberose not only needs regular watering, but also needs to be systematically moistened with a spray bottle. Spray the bush with warm water in the morning, evening or in cloudy weather. If you carry out this procedure during the day, then direct rays of the sun that fell on a moist bush can cause a burn.
Regularly feed the plant is necessary so that it flourishes luxuriantly and develops properly. The first top dressing is carried out in May and continues to fertilize the soil until the end of the growing season. Polyantes is fed monthly, using organic or complex mineral fertilizer, which is dissolved in water.
Corms must be removed from the ground before the first frost. They are stored in a dry place, and children do not need to be separated. With the onset of the spring period at an air temperature of 8 to 10 degrees, it is necessary to separate the children from the parent corms for growing, and this must be done several days before planting.
When it takes several weeks after removing the corms from the ground, they can be used for distillation. To do this, they are transferred to a warm, well-lit and ventilated room, and regularly moistened with water from a sprayer. In order to plant corms, you need to take small pots, they are filled with garden soil, which is mixed with sand. Green sprouts should appear after very little time. And soon your home will be adorned with a delightful flowering bush.
The plant is highly sensitive to transplants. In this regard, it is extremely undesirable to transplant tuberose at the beginning of the growing season, since there is a high probability of its death: the bush may rot, dry out or not take root. Experienced gardeners recommend replanting the bush from the beginning to mid-April, and it should grow in one place for at least one year. If green sprouts have already appeared from the ground, then it is better to postpone the transplant until the flowering ends. Only in this case, a transplant followed by dividing the bush will be successful.
Preservation of decorativeness
In order for the plant to remain effective throughout the entire growing season, do not forget to cut off all wilted leaves and inflorescences from it in time. It will also positively affect flowering, which will become more magnificent. Tall bushes need a garter, as their tall stems can break due to strong gusts of wind.And thanks to the garter, the bush will not fall apart.
Tuberose: why was it banned? Origin, myths and perfumes with its aroma.
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Polyantes can be propagated by seed method and daughter bulbs. Such a plant is rarely grown from seeds, since this is a rather difficult task. The fact is that the seedlings that have appeared are very tender, and therefore they often die in the first few days, while not even a single leaflet has time to form on them.
Experienced gardeners recommend either buying new corms in the store or propagating the bush by children. During one season, a large number of small children can form on an adult bulb. They are disconnected from the maternal corm and used for planting. The smallest children will have to grow up from three to four years, and the largest - 1-2 years. The bush will bloom only after its bulb in diameter is at least 35–45 mm. Before you plant a large bulb in the garden, you must first grow it by placing it in a greenhouse or in a warm room. Planting bulbs in pots for growing is carried out in March. And in the spring, when the return frosts are left behind, the bush can be transplanted to a suitable site in the garden.
If the climate is temperate in your area, it is best to grow tuberose in a pot. In the warm season, the bush is transferred to the garden, and when it gets too cold outside, it is rearranged into a warm room. If the climate is warm and mild, then you can grow a bush in the garden. Plant the bulbs in the pits a third covered with sand. The root neck should be at ground level, and the roots should face up.
Tuberose in landscape design
Effective tuberose looks great in both group and single landings. To make the flower garden look brighter, you can plant various varieties of this plant nearby, which differ in color of inflorescences. The polyantes looks good next to the gladiolus, especially since you need to take care of these crops equally.
Polyantes is used in rabatka as a background for stunted garden crops. A tub with a flowering bush can be placed on the balcony, terrace, near the gazebo, etc. Inflorescences of such a perennial can be used for cutting, as they retain their freshness for about two weeks. But remember that their smell is very harsh, so it is better to keep the flowers in a well-ventilated room.
Essential oils are extracted from tuberose. They are used for the manufacture of perfumes.
Types and varieties of tuberose
To date, 13 types of tuberose are known. However, only 2 species are grown in the culture.
Tuberose, or tuberous polyantes (Polianthes tuberosa)
On the bush grows no more than nine narrow leaf blades having an oblong shape. Outwardly, they are similar to the foliage of cereal crops. The length of the leaves varies from 0.35 to 0.5 meters, and in width they can reach from 10 to 20 mm. They form a basal rosette.
Most often, highly decorative flowers in this plant are double, but they can be simple. As a rule, they are painted white, but are pink. Flowers are part of a loose spike-shaped inflorescence. From 18 to 20 flowers are formed on one peduncle, reaching from 40 to 60 mm across.
The best varieties of this type include:
- Pearl. This medium-sized plant reaches a height of about 0.45 m. During flowering, it is decorated with spectacular terry large inflorescences of snow-white color. This variety reacts extremely negatively to cold, and therefore it is preferred to cultivate it indoors.
- Sensation. In this perennial plant, the flowers have a funnel shape, and they are painted in a purple-pink hue.
- Yellow chrysalis. This plant is one of the most beautiful varieties of tuberose. Its flowers are painted in a gentle pastel yellow tint.
- Decoration. Saturated pink inflorescences have a pleasant pungent smell.This variety can be cultivated in open ground, but only in regions with a mild climate. Most often, such tuberose is grown in order to make perfumes, and the plot is decorated much less often.
- Pink sapphire. The bush reaches a height of about half a meter, while it is highly decorative. During flowering, many lush flowers cover it. A thin border of lilac color passes along the edge of light pink petals.
Broadleaf Polyantes (Polianthes platyphillus Traub et Moldenke)
This perennial has a bulbous root system. In diameter, the corm reaches from 20 to 30 mm. The height of the dense erect stem is about one meter; its surface is bare and rough. Belt-shaped smooth wide leaf plates form a rosette at the base of the stem. The spike-shaped inflorescence includes white flowers of a funnel-shaped form, in diameter reaching from 40 to 50 mm. The beginning of flowering of this plant falls on April – May. Its flowers have a very pleasant smell.
TUBEROSA / POLIANTHES TUBEROSA
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