Helianthus: planting and care in the open ground, types and varieties
The flower garden (Leucojum) is a representative of the Amaryllis family. In nature, such plants are found in Turkey, Central Europe, the Mediterranean, Iran and North Africa. The name of this genus in Greek means "white violet." There is a legend associated with the origin of this flower. Once a goddess fell in love with a village cowgirl, but she repeatedly rejected his courtship. However, he conceived, by cunning, to lure her to the cloud and achieve reciprocity in any way. God believed that the beloved, seeing the whole world at her feet, would certainly want to live with him. At night, he stole and hid a cow that belonged to this girl. Having arrived at her in the morning, he offered his help. God lifted his beloved to the cloud, because from there she could quickly find her cow. The girl was struck by the beauty that opened her gaze. She, imagining herself a goddess, took the caskets that God needed to control the weather, and began to shake out what was in them on the ground. So, fog fell from the first casket, summer rain fell from the next. In the third there was snow and, laughing, the girl shook it to the ground. Winter time has already passed, and therefore God was angry with the girl! God made it so that touching the ground, snow turned into white flowers - beautiful white flowers. And the frivolous girl God sent back, where she continued to graze the cows. Since then, at the end of May, snow-white flowers of the white flower have been revealed. Gardeners cultivate only 2 species of this plant.
Features of the flower garden
The flower garden has bulbs, consisting of webbed closed white scales, as well as perennial thick roots. The roots die over time along with that part of the bottom from which they sprouted. Sheet plates linear and belt-shaped. In spring species, their formation occurs at the same time with flowers, while in autumn species, they grow after the plant has bloomed. Every year, 2 or 3 bottom flakes are formed at the flower garden, behind which 2 or 3 leaf plates with a closed base and one with an open one are laid. It is from the sinus of such a leaf plate that the flower arrow develops, while at the base of the leaf there is a formation of a renewal bud. An upright slightly flattened peduncle can be rounded or double-edged, during the ripening of the fruit, it wilts. The arrow ends with a webbed wing of green color, drooping pink or white flowers on pedicels grow from its sinus. Flowers can be solitary or be part of umbrella-shaped inflorescences. The composition of the wide-bellied perianth includes 6 leaves, at the top of which there is a spot of green or yellow color. The fruit is a fleshy box, inside of which there are black seeds of oblong or rounded shape.
Planting a flower garden in the open ground
What time to plant
Experts advise planting bulbs of the white flower during their dormancy period, and this time falls on July – September. If the weather is warm for a long time in autumn, then this plant can be planted in open soil until the first days of November. Planting material should be purchased with particular care. Bulbs should be heavy and dense, as well as covered with intact shells. Also, they should have short roots, and still no shoots. A bulb with overgrown long roots or with sprouted shoots should be planted in open soil as soon as possible. It is also recommended that the acquired bulbs are completely intact, without mechanical damage.Especially they should be absent at the bottom, and also inspect the planting material for mold. Do not purchase broken, crumpled bulbs, as well as those that have a torn protective shell or an injured bottom. In the event that it is too early to plant the acquired onions in open soil, then they should be stored in a perforated plastic bag, into which chips or sawdust should be poured.
For planting, it is recommended to choose a shaded area, which is located near shrubs and ponds. Soil should be moist and well-drained, as well as saturated humus. Before embarking, it is necessary to dig the soil on the site, while making coarse river sand or gravel in it. If the soil is poor, then it also brings in sheet soil, sand and rotted manure (it should not be fresh). Since this flower culture is not recommended to be grown on acidic soil, it is therefore also recommended to add a small amount of lime and rotted peat to it. Planting of this plant should be carried out according to the same scheme as other bulb crops. Remember that after planting, the thickness of the soil layer located above the bulb should be equal to two bulb diameters. However, it should be noted that the thickness of this layer should not be thinner than 50 mm. If the bulb is planted excessively deep, then gradually it becomes more and more. And with an insufficiently deep landing, flickering of bulbs is observed, but at the same time there is an intensive build-up of children. Planted bulbs need good watering.
Care for the flower garden in the garden
To care for the white flower should be exactly the same as for the following garden crops: hyacinth, muscari or blueberries. This plant must be watered in a timely manner, weeding, loosening the surface of the soil, as well as feeding.
How to water and feed
In the first spring weeks, irrigation is not needed. The fact is that after the melting of the snow cover in the soil for a long time, moisture is retained. If there was very little snow in winter and the spring turned out to be dry and warm, then these flowers would need to be watered regularly, while the water should be taken up, and it should not be cold, while trying to prevent drops from falling on the flowers. In the absence of watering, the plant will not die, but it will become stunted.
The white flower is fed with a liquid mineral complex, in which there should be a small amount of nitrogen. The fact is that nitrogen helps to stimulate the intensive growth of leaf blades, but this negatively affects flowering. Lush greens in wet rainy weather can cause fungal diseases in the bush. Phosphorus also stimulates lush flowering, and thanks to potassium, healthy bulbs are formed that can winter well.
Transplantation and reproduction of the stamen
Transplant or propagate this flower by dividing the nests is necessary only when it is at rest, namely, from June to September or October. It is recommended to transplant the bushes once every 5–7 years, otherwise the bulbs that have grown will not have enough nutrients, and the white flower will begin to grow weak.
Dug nests should be divided. Bulbs for drying are laid in a shaded place, then they are cleaned of old, as well as diseased roots, rotten and injured scales. All mechanical damage should be sprinkled with ash or coal powder, bulbs affected by the disease, and unfit for planting should be thrown out. Then, the children are planted in the prepared area in advance, the planting scheme is described in detail above.
Also, the propagation of the flower garden is done by the seed method.Freshly harvested seeds should be sown immediately after harvest or with the onset of autumn. The fact is that they, like the seeds of Corydalis, remain viable for a short time. During the winter period, seeds can undergo a natural stratification, which has a good effect on the further growth and development of seedlings. Seeds are sown in boxes, while the surface of the soil mixture must be covered with a special film that protects against the growth of weed grass. Further, it is only necessary to observe that the drying of the soil mixture does not occur. Plants grown from seeds will begin to bloom only for 7 or 8 years. Propagation of such a culture can also occur by self-seeding, while the gardener is quite capable of controlling this process. To do this, seedlings that appear in unnecessary places must be torn out, and those that grow in the designated area need good care.
The flower garden is highly resistant to frost, so it does not need to be covered for the winter. In the event that weather forecasters predict a very cold and little snowy winter, it is recommended to cover the area with the white flower with lapnik.
Pests and diseases of the flower garden
The flower garden is resistant to diseases and pests, but still sometimes it can start to have problems. Moreover, the diseases in this culture are almost the same as in the snowdrop, which is also a primrose.
So, bulbous nematodes, slugs, scoops, as well as their caterpillars, can harm the plant. And rodents such as mice and moles can do harm. In the fall, you can collect the thick caterpillars of the scoop manually, at which time they have a preparation for pupation. If desired, an insecticidal preparation can be used to exterminate them.
The nematode is a very small worm, due to which light yellow tumors form on the leaf plates. In the event that there are nematodes on the bush, then it should be dug up and burned. The remaining healthy plants must be transplanted, while before planting the bulbs need to be immersed in very warm water (40 to 45 degrees) for several hours. To plant them, you should choose a site located in another place. Planting of bulb crops in areas affected by nematodes cannot be carried out for 4 or 5 years.
Underground slugs prefer to live in fertile soil or in heavy clay soil. During planting, the bulb in the hole must be surrounded by a layer of coarse sand, this will get rid of this pest.
With rodents, things are more complicated, they can not only injure the bulbs with their teeth, but also drag them into their minks. Rotten bulbs can develop on gnawed bulbs, however, it is possible to understand that the plant is sick, only by its stunted appearance. Such shrubs should be dug up, all rotted areas are cut out of the bulbs, after which the wounds are treated with wood ash and left for several hours in the fresh air for drying. After this, the bulbs can be planted again in the soil. Mice prefer to settle in the curtains of perennials or in turfs with grass, so they should be located at least 300 cm from the plantings of the flower garden (as a rule, the mice do not move farther from their housing). It is also recommended to place poison baits on the territory of the site.
The greatest danger of all diseases for this culture is viral, since today it is not amenable to treatment. When greenish or yellowish marks and many tubercles are formed on the foliage, as well as a leaf plate is twisted, the bush is immediately dug up and destroyed to avoid spreading the infection to other plants.
When a plant is infected with a fungal disease such as rust or gray mold, black or brown spots appear on the leaf plates, and a gray fluffy coating forms on the shoot surface itself, which will spread up the stem over time. Cut and destroy all affected areas of the plant, then the bush and the soil surface under it is sprayed with a fungicidal preparation solution.
Types and varieties of whiteflower with photos and names
It has already been mentioned above that gardeners only cultivate only 2 species of flower garden.
Spring bloom (Leucojum vernum)
This species prefers to grow on the edges of beech forests, which are located in Central Europe, the Carpathians also enter here. The height of such a perennial plant is about 0.2 m. The bulbous ovoid in diameter reaches 20 mm. The wide-lanceolate sheet plates reach 0.25 m in length and 12 mm in width. The height of the peduncles is approximately 0.3 m. The drooping white flowers can be single or paired, they have a pleasant smell, and at the tops of the petals there are specks of green or yellow color. This plant blooms in April, and the duration of its flowering is 20-30 days. The fruit is a fleshy three-nosed box of spherical shape. Cultivated since 1420. The best variety is Carpathicum: flowers are larger in comparison with the main species, and on their petals there are yellow spots.
Summer petal (Leucojum aestivum)
In nature, this species can be found in the Crimea, Asia Minor and South Asia, Southern and Western Europe and Western Transcaucasia, while it prefers to grow on the banks of rivers and in flood meadows. The height of such a perennial plant is about 0.4 m, the length of leaf blades is 0.3 m, and the height of the peduncles is 0.4 m. Flowering begins from mid to late May. The drooping umbrella-shaped inflorescences consist of 3-10 white flowers. The plant blooms for about 20 days. It has been cultivated since 1588. The Gravestite variety is the most popular: this garden variation was obtained by English breeders, the flower stalks are approximately 0.6 m high, they carry six white flowers each, with green-straw spots on their petals.
Quite spectacular are the Mediterranean species of whiteflower such as hairy, long-leaved and Tingitansky, however, scientists have isolated them in the hotel genus, which is called acis. Of the species blooming in autumn in Western Europe, the most commonly cultivated are autumn and pink white. The height of the autumn bloom is about 12 centimeters, flowering is observed in September, there are green spots on the petals of white flowers. At the moment, these species are also called acidis and are allocated in a separate genus.