Turn: planting and care, pruning and reproduction, species and varieties
The thorn (Prunus spinosa), also referred to as prickly plum, or blackthorn, or thorny plum, is a spiny, not very large shrub that is a member of the Plum genus of the subfamily Plum family Pink. The name of this plant comes from the Proto-Slavic language and translates as "spine". In nature, thorns can be found in temperate regions. It often forms very dense thickets, and prefers to grow on cutting areas and along the edges of the forest, in the steppes and forest-steppes. The turn occurs at an altitude of 1200 to 1600 meters above sea level in the Caucasus and Crimea. Also, this plant can be found in North Africa, Asia Minor, Ukraine, Western Europe, the Mediterranean, Western Siberia, and also on the European part of Russia. Man learned about the existence of the thorns for a long time, he was known during the existence of Rome and Ancient Greece. The thorns of such a shrub in Christianity are considered a symbol of the suffering of Jesus Christ. The bush of thorns, embraced by fire, was mentioned in the Holy Scripture: “And the Angel of the Lord appeared to Moses in a flame of fire from the midst of a thorn bush. And he saw that the bush of thorns burns with fire, but the bush does not burn ... and God called to him from among the bush and made him the leader of his people. "
Thorn bush features
The turn may be a shrub or a low tree. The height of the bush can reach up to 3.5-4.5 meters, while the tree grows up to 8 meters. Due to the abundant basal shoots, such a shrub can grow quite actively in breadth, while impassable and very spiky dense thickets are formed. The core root is buried 100 centimeters in the ground, while the root system is branched, it grows very much and can be far beyond the crown projection. On the surface of the branches there are a large number of spines. Elliptical obovate leaf plates reach a length of 50 mm and have a serrated edge. Before foliage opens on the shrub in April or May, numerous single small five-petalled white flowers bloom. The fruit is very similar in appearance to plum, this rounded odnostyanka has a tart-acid taste, it reaches about 1.2 cm across. The fruit is painted in dark blue, and on its surface there is a wax coating of a bluish color.
Fruiting begins at the age of two or three. The turn is a wonderful honey plant, and also it is resistant to drought and frost. Even a person who is a beginner in gardening can plant and grow such a shrub. The thorns are used to create hedges, in order to strengthen the sliding slopes, and also as a stock for plums and apricots. To decorate your garden plot, you should choose decorative varieties of such a plant, namely: terry, red-leafed and purple thorns.
Outdoor planting of thorns
What time to plant
Thorns in open ground are planted at the beginning of spring. However, the preparation of the pit for planting should be tackled in the fall, because during the winter it should have time to settle and settle down. For planting such a shrub, clay, saline, dry, and also sandy soil are suitable. He is not afraid of abundant meltwater in the spring. But planting it in excessively moist or heavy soil is not recommended, because in this area there is a high probability of frostbite of the bush. A sunny area with neutral, moist soil saturated with nutrients is best suited for planting the blackthorn.
The depth and diameter of the landing pit should be about 0.6 m. In order to prevent uncontrolled growth of the turn, the steep edges of the pit should be covered with sheets of unnecessary iron or slate.7 days before the thorns are planted in open ground, the bottom of the pit for planting should be covered with a layer of eggshell, which is recommended to be collected all winter. On top of it, you need to fill it with soil mixture, consisting of earth excavated when digging a hole, which must be combined with 0.5 kg of superphosphate, with 1-2 buckets of compost or humus and with 60 grams of potassium fertilizer. If the acidity of the soil is high, then this can be corrected by adding lime fluff to it. If a hedge is created from the turn, then a distance of one and a half meters must be observed between the seedlings. When landing several thorns between them, a distance of 2-3 meters should be maintained.
Two-year-old seedlings purchased in advance must be prepared before planting. To do this, their root system must be immersed in a solution of sodium humate (take 3-4 large spoons for half a bucket of water). A wooden stake should be installed in the center of the bottom of the pit, reaching a height of one and a half meters. Then, it is necessary to pour nutrient soil mixture into the pit so that a mound is formed around the peg. Then, on the resulting slide, you need to install a seedling, after the roots are carefully straightened, the foundation pit must be filled with nutritious soil mixtures connected to fertilizers, and it only needs to be slightly compacted. The root neck of a planted seedling should rise 30-40 mm above the ground. The trunk circle around should be fenced with an earthen rim, the height of which should be about 10 centimeters. Then 20 to 30 liters of water are poured into it. To reduce the amount of watering after all the liquid is absorbed into the soil, its surface must be covered with a layer of mulch (humus). Garter to the peg of the planted plant is produced at the very end.
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After the seedlings of thorns are planted in open ground, all its stems must be shortened. In spring, before the buds swell, adult plants need to arrange sanitary and shaping pruning. Basic care for the thorns is not much different from caring for other shrubs grown in the garden. It must be watered on time, loosen the surface of the trunk circle, feed, weed, remove basal shoots and carry out sanitary and forming scraps. Also, it is necessary to collect ripe fruits in a timely manner and properly prepare the shrub for wintering.
How to water
A seedling planted in open ground should be watered at first 1 time in 7 days, then watering is reduced to 2 times a month. After the seedling starts to grow, and leaf plates open on it, watering it begins quite rarely. If it rains regularly in the summer, then watering the shrub is unnecessary, because it has a high resistance to drought. However, if the dry period lasts excessively long, then from the bush you need to pour from 20 to 30 liters of water, which should not be cold.
In order for the fruiting of the thorn to be distinguished by its abundance and regularity, it must be fed in a timely manner. To do this, each year, organic matter (1 bucket of humus per 1 bush) or a solution of complex mineral fertilizer is added to the soil of the near-trunk circle. With age, the need for shrubs in fertilizers increases.
Pruning of this culture is carried out in the spring before the sap flow begins, as a rule, this time falls on March. For sanitary purposes, it is necessary to cut out all the injured, dried, damaged by disease or frost stems and branches.
Blackthorn is prone to thickening the crown, therefore, it requires systematic thinning. He will also need forming clippings, for this, young bushes need to leave 4 or 5 fruiting branches, while the rest should be cut under the root. Most often, gardeners form a crown of thorns in the form of a bowl.To do this, in the first year of growth, seedlings planted in a permanent place must be shortened to 0.3-0.5 meters. In the second year of growth, all stems except the most powerful ones should be cut, and they should be arranged in a circle.
In the fall, the bush is trimmed only if necessary. As a rule, at this time the turn only needs sanitary scraps, while injured or diseased branches are cut out. This procedure is carried out after all the leaves fly around from the bush.
Blackthorn can be propagated in a generative (seed) way and in a vegetative way: by root offspring and cuttings. Quickly propagate this culture in a generative way will not work. If you need to get material for planting as quickly as possible, then for this you should choose vegetative methods.
Propagation of Thorns by Seeds
In the first autumn weeks, the seed must be removed from the fetus and cleaned of the remaining pulp. Then the bone is planted in open ground. Sowing can be done in spring, but in this case, the seeds will need preliminary stratification, for this they are placed on the shelf of the refrigerator for the whole winter. Some gardeners recommend that before sowing the seeds for 12 hours immerse in honey syrup, seedlings from such seeds will seem much faster. After that, they are sown, buried in the soil only 60–70 mm. The surface of the crop area must be covered. Immediately after the seedlings appear on the surface, the shelter must be removed. After the shoots are 2 years old, you need to transplant them to a permanent place.
Propagation of the turn by cuttings
At least 5 absolutely healthy kidneys should be present on the cuttings. In spring, the cuttings should be planted for rooting in a container filled with fertile soil. The container should be transferred to the greenhouse or covered with a cap on top, which must be transparent. During the summer period, they will need to provide regular watering and top dressing with a nutrient solution. By the onset of the autumn period, cuttings will become full-fledged seedlings, in which the root system will be very well developed.
How to propagate root shoots
Separate the root offspring from the parent bush very carefully. Then they will need to be planted in pre-made planting pits, while the distance between them should be about 100-200 cm. They need exactly the same care as the seedlings.
Diseases and pests of the thorn
Blackthorn has a fairly high resistance to diseases and pests. In very rare cases, this shrub gets gray rot (monilis). This fungal disease is caused by the fungus monilia, it can penetrate the flower's pestle. The disease primarily affects very young stems of the bush. After some time, the leaves and stalks of blackthorn change their color to dark brown. Disease in the bush always spreads from top to bottom. Instead of fallen leaves, a new, green one appears, but at the end of the summer period it turns yellow and flies around, a significant decrease in fruiting occurs. All the fruits that survived crack, and rot forms on them. To get rid of gray rot, it will be necessary to spray the affected bush with a solution of a fungicidal preparation. At the very beginning of the spring period, the turn must be treated with Horus solution (this drug is the only one that can be used at subzero temperatures). When it gets warm outside, it will be possible to use Gamair, Bordeaux liquid, Abiga Peak, Rovral or copper sulfate for processing. Before proceeding with the preparation of the solution, you must carefully read the instructions and follow them.
The greatest danger from pests for such a plant is aphid. She is a sucking insect that feeds on the plant’s cell sap.Aphids suck it out of young shoots and foliage, which causes their deformation and yellowing. This insect is capable of greatly damaging the thorns, as it is extremely prolific. And aphids are the main carrier of viral diseases, which today are incurable. In order to get rid of such a pest, the bush must be sprayed with a solution of an acaricidal preparation (for example, Aktara, Antitlin, Actellik, etc.). To achieve a lasting result, you will need several treatments.
Types and varieties of thorns
The following blackthorn varieties and hybrids are most popular:
- Sweet TLCA. Fruits are sweet-sour, almost intolerant.
- KrOSS №1. The height of the plant is about 250 centimeters. On the surface of purple fruits is a dense coating of wax. The sweet-sour flesh tastes a little tart. Fruits weigh about 6-7 grams.
- KrOSS №2. Rounded purple fruits weigh about 8 grams. Their taste is sweet-sour, a little tart.
- Yellow fruit. This is a second-generation hybrid between blackthorn and cherry plum. The fruits have a pleasant taste and yellow color.
- Apricot. This is a hybrid between apricot and thorns. The color of the fruit is pale lilac-pink; their taste is quite pleasant with apricot notes.
- Fragrant-1 and Fragrant-2. This is a hybrid of the US-China Tok and Tern plum. The height of such a tree is about four meters. Fruits of purple color have a flat-rounded shape, they weigh from 8 to 10 grams. The yellow flesh has a sweet-sour taste, while astringency is completely absent. The pulp has a subtle smell of apricot and wild strawberry. The stone is small, very well separated from the pulp.
- Shropshire. The variety was created by English breeders. The fruits are sweet honey, intolerant.
- Cherry Blossom (Cherry). In height, the bush reaches about 300 centimeters. The medium density crown has a rounded shape. On the surface of dark purple fruits is a waxy coating, they weigh about 5-6 grams and have a rounded shape. Green dense pulp has a sour and tart taste.
- Cherry plum. Such a tree reaches a height of 300 cm. Large rounded fruits of a purple color on the surface have a dense waxy coating. Such fruits weigh about 8.5 grams. Green dense flesh of sweet-sour taste, slightly tart.
- Prunes. This is a hybrid between blackthorn and cherry plum. The color of the fruit can be various yellow-blue-red shades.
- Garden number 2. The height of such a bush is about two meters. Spherical fruits can have almost black or dark blue color. On the surface there is a raid of gray color. The pulp has a great taste.
The properties of the turn: harm and benefit
Useful properties of the turn
The thorns have incredibly useful fruits, as they contain sugars (fructose and glucose), malic acid, pectin, carbohydrates, steroids, fiber, triterpenoids, vitamins C and E, coumarins, nitrogen-containing compounds, tannins, flavonoids, higher alcohols, mineral salts , fatty acids linoleic, palmitic, stearic, oleic and eleostearic. Both fresh and processed fruits have an astringent effect, so they are used for disorders of the stomach and intestines, for example: dysentery, candidiasis, ulcerative colitis, food poisoning and toxicoinfection. In infectious diseases, thorny wine is used as a healing drink.
Blackthorn fruits are used during the treatment of neuralgia, metabolic disorders, liver and kidney diseases, vitamin deficiencies, and they also have antipyretic and diaphoretic effects. The flowers and fruits of such a plant are used for edema, kidney stone disease, cystitis, gastritis, boils and pustular skin diseases. Flowers have a mild laxative effect, they are used to treat skin diseases that depend on the metabolism in the body.Also, these flowers will help regulate intestinal motility and reduction of the renal ducts, since they differ in the diaphoretic, hypotensive and diuretic effect. A decoction of flowers is used for shortness of breath, furunculosis, hypertension, constipation and nausea.
Freshly squeezed blackthorn juice has antimicrobial activity against protozoan parasites; it is used for intestinal disorders and giardiasis. A decoction made from flowers is used for inflammation of the mucous membrane of the esophagus, throat and oral cavity. Thorn tea made from foliage has a slight laxative effect, and also helps increase urine output. It is taken for chronic constipation, cystitis and prostate adenoma. It is also recommended to drink it to those people who lead a sedentary lifestyle.
Preparations made on the basis of thorns have a fixing, diuretic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and expectorant effect, they also contribute to lowering vascular permeability and relaxing smooth muscles of internal organs.
WILD DRAIN OF TURNS. USEFUL PROPERTIES OF BERRIES
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The fruits of blackthorn contain a fairly large amount of acid, which can harm people suffering from gastritis, ulcers or increased acidity of the stomach. Since they have a very intense color, this can cause an allergic reaction. The bones contain the strongest poison, so try not to swallow them. Also, the turn is contraindicated for people with individual intolerance. If you eat a lot of blackthorn fruits at a time, it can harm the body, even a relatively healthy person.