Oleander: home care, seed cultivation
The oleander plant (Nerium) is a member of the Kutrov family. The Latin name for such a culture comes from the Greek word "nerion", which translates as "raw" or "wet." The site on which the oleander grows must have groundwater located fairly close to the surface of the soil, however, this culture is resistant to heat. In nature, it is found in the subtropical regions of the Mediterranean. Such a flower is poisonous, however, substances used for the manufacture of medicines that are prescribed for disorders of the cardiovascular system are extracted from its foliage. If you inhale the smell of flowers of a room oleander for a very long time, then this can cause headaches. Large flowers have pink, red, white or yellow color. Most often, at home, a species of ordinary oleander (Nerium oleander) is grown. Thanks to breeders, a large number of forms of such a plant with various flowers appeared. If the bush is put in a well-lit place, then in a short time it can reach a height of 200 cm.
Short description of growing
- Bloom. In June – October.
- Illumination. Needs bright sunlight.
- Temperature mode. In the spring and summer, from 20 to 28 degrees, in the fall - about 18 degrees, and in the winter - 8–18 degrees.
- Watering. In spring and summer, watering is carried out immediately after the top layer of the substrate dries, while in the strong heat the water remaining in the pan after watering is not poured. In the autumn-winter period, you can wait until the soil mixture dries to a great depth.
- Air humidity. Must be moderate. However, in the hot season, a flower pot is recommended to be placed on a pallet filled with moist expanded clay.
- Fertilizer. In spring and summer, the bush is fed from 2 to 4 times a month, for this they use mineral fertilizer for flowering plants. Top dressing is carried out after 30 minutes. after watering.
- Rest period. From November to the last days of February.
- Pruning. Immediately after the bush fades.
- Transfer. In the last spring weeks. Young bushes are transplanted 1 time per year, and adult specimens - 1 time in 2 or 3 years. If the bush is very large, then every year in spring it will need to change the top layer of soil mix in the tank.
- Soil mix. Peat, sand, humus, turf and leafy land (1: 1: 1: 2: 1).
- Breeding. Seed method and cuttings.
- Harmful insects. Mealybugs, scale insects, spider mites and aphids.
- Diseases. If the bush is improperly looked after or provided with inappropriate conditions of detention, this can have a very negative effect on its decorative effect.
- Properties. This plant is poisonous, but medicines for heart diseases are made from its leaf plates.
Oleander. Reproduction, planting, care features
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Oleander care at home
When grown at home, the oleander needs a lot of light, only in this case the bush will be dense and beautiful. If the pot stands on a windowsill of a northern orientation, then experts recommend lighting the flower with fluorescent lamps. The fact is that with a lack of light from the bush, all the foliage begins to fly around. The room where the plant is located should be regularly and well ventilated. In summer, the bush should be put in a well-lit place, while it needs to provide good ventilation. If it was purchased recently, then it should be accustomed to bright light, as well as to direct rays of the sun.
The room in which the flower is located must be systematically ventilated. In the spring-summer period, the temperature in it should be from 20 to 28 degrees.With the onset of the autumn period, the temperature must be lowered to 18 degrees, and in winter, the oleander is cleaned in a well-lit and cool (8-15 degrees) place. With the onset of March, it is necessary to carry out a gradual increase in air temperature in the room.
How to water
For irrigation it is necessary to use soft lukewarm (slightly above room temperature) water, and it will be very good if it stands before it for at least 24 hours. In the spring-summer period, irrigation is carried out immediately after the top layer of the soil mixture dries. And on hot days, the water that remains in the pan after watering must be left, while when it is cool outside, such a liquid should be poured out. In the autumn-winter period, watering is carried out carefully, they do it about 2 days after the top layer of the soil mixture dries, and it must be ensured that the root system of the bush does not rot. Do not allow the earthen coma to dry out.
In the spring-summer period, it is not necessary to moisten the oleander from the sprayer. In the event that the room is very hot, then the container with the plant is placed on a tray into which water is poured. But in the winter, he will need systematic spraying, because he can start to dry the tips of the sheet plates due to the excessively dry air that is dried by heating appliances.
Feeding the oleander
Top dressing is carried out only in the spring-summer period from 2 to 4 times a month, for this purpose organic and mineral fertilizers are alternately used. Top dressing is carried out only in those days when the weather is hot, do it half an hour after watering.
It is necessary to trim the oleander, otherwise flowering may not occur or it will be sparse. At a faded bush, the branches should be shortened by ½ or 2/3 of the part. Cropped branches can be used as cuttings. Vegetative shoots that grow under flower buds must be removed, as they slow down the development of the bush.
Young plants should be replanted once a year, and adult specimens - once every 2 or 3 years. Transplantation is carried out in the last weeks of spring or the first - summers. Mandatory transplantation is necessary for those bushes in which the root system has ceased to fit in the pot. In this case, a significant part of the roots must be cut, while the places of the cuts must be treated with charcoal dust, it is also necessary to reduce the lump of land, so the bush will bloom more magnificent. A good drainage layer should be made in the tank, a suitable soil mixture should consist of peat, sand, humus, turf and leafy soil (1: 1: 1: 2: 1). If the bush is very large, it will be extremely difficult to transplant it, so it is recommended to replace the topsoil layer in the tank with a fresh one every year.
If there are children in the house, then it is better not to grow an oleander, because its root system, foliage, flowers and shoots contain poison. When the work with the bush is over, you must wash your hands with soap. The smell of the flowers of such a plant can cause headaches. It is impossible to eat flowers and fruits of an oleander, because because of this vomiting may occur, the heartbeat may be disturbed, and in some cases respiratory arrest may occur. If there are even small wounds on the skin of the hands, then it is impossible to work with the oleander, because its juice should in no case get into the wound.
Only freshly harvested oleander seeds are sown, because due to prolonged storage they lose their germination capacity. The seed material needs pre-sowing preparation, for this it is poured for 30 minutes with a solution of systemic fungicide or potassium permanganate. Then it is soaked for 2-3 hours in a tepid Zircon solution. Seeds are distributed on the surface of the substrate (vermiculite, sand and charcoal), then they are covered with a thin layer of the same soil mixture.In that case, if the crops are put in a warm place (from 33 to 35 degrees), then the first seedlings may appear after 7-10 days. If the crops are standing in a cooler place, the seedlings will appear a little later, but the seeds are also likely to rot.
When the seedlings appear, the crops should be started to fill up with fluorescent lamps, while the air temperature should not fall below 18 degrees. Regularly moisten the seedlings from the sprayer, as well as ventilate the seedlings. When 2 real leaf plates are formed on the plants, they can gradually begin to be looked after, like adult bushes. The pickling of plants in separate pots is carried out after they have formed 2 more real leaf plates. When oleander is propagated by seeds, varietal characters may be lost in grown seedlings.
Propagation of oleander by cuttings
Harvesting cuttings is carried out in autumn or spring, their length should be about 15 cm. They are treated with chopped charcoal and wait until they dry. They are planted in perlite, crushed expanded clay or in a mixture consisting of sand and charcoal. When they are planted, their root necks must be sprinkled with a small amount of sand, which will save them from decay. The soil mixture must be constantly moderately moistened, so rot will not appear on the cuttings. The temperature should be about 20 degrees, while the container with the cuttings should be in a well-lit place. For rooting, you can also use ordinary water, however, so that rot does not appear on the cuttings, you need to add a small amount of charcoal to the liquid. After about 4 weeks, roots appear on them, they are transplanted into individual pots filled with soil mix, which includes turf, humus and peat soil, and a small amount of sand.
💗 Oleander reproduction, planting rooted cuttings
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- Lack of flowering. If the oleander does not bloom, then this may be due to the fact that in the summer he felt a lack of sunlight.
- Foliage. In the autumn-winter period, with a lack of light from the bush, foliage can begin to fly around.
- Sparse flowering. Poor flowering of an adult bush may be due to the fact that pruning is not carried out on time, watering is too scarce, lacks nutrients or the lighting is very poor.
- Pests. Sometimes oleander is affected by cancer (this is a personal disease of such a culture). Most often, scabies, spider mites, worms and aphids settle on bushes.
The healing properties of oleander
Cardiac glycosides are made from oleander foliage, they are used in the manufacture of drugs for the treatment of disorders of the cardiovascular system.
Types of Oleander
Common oleander (Nerium oleander)
Either fragrant oleander (Nerium odorum) or Indian oleander (Nerium indicum) - the height of such a large shrub is about 400 cm. Lanceolate leaf plates grow on straight branches, which can be short-leaved or collected in whorls of 3 pieces or opposite. The length of the foliage is about 15 centimeters, and its width is up to 3 centimeters. The leathery-to-touch sheet plates have a seamy surface of a greenish color and a darker shade of the front. The form of inflorescences is racemose. Lush inflorescences consist of a large number of flowers that can be painted in pink, yellow, red or white. There are forms with variegated flowers.
Oleander. WHY IS OLEANDER NOT COLORING? OLEANDRA CONTENT FEATURES
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