Schisandra: growing and care, planting rules, medicinal properties
Schisandra (Schisandra) is a deciduous or evergreen plant belonging to the family Schisandra (Schizandra). According to information taken from various sources, this genus unites 14–23 species. Gardeners cultivate only Chinese Schisandra chinensis, which is also called Schisandra medicinal, or lemon tree. In nature, such a plant can be found in Korea, on Sakhalin, in the Primorsky and Khabarovsk Territories of Russia, China, Japan, the Amur Region, as well as in the Kuril Islands. To date, this wild-growing vine is cultivated as a fruit tree.
Features of Schisandra
Schisandra is a deciduous vine, reaching a length of 10 to 15 meters. Its shoots curl along the support and reach 20 mm across. Flaky bark of stems has a dark brown color. Shoots are covered with a light yellow smooth bark. The length of the dense leaf blades is about 10 centimeters and the width is about 5 centimeters; they have a wedge-shaped base, a pointed apex, and also an obscure-toothed edge. Their front surface is bare dark green, and the inside is lighter and there is a slight pubescence on the veins. The leaves have petioles reaching a length of 20–30 mm; they are painted red-pink. Foliage and shoots have a lemon smell. Dioecious flowers in diameter reach 15 mm, they also smell like lemon. After opening, the flowers are white, but eventually turn pink. They are placed in the leaf sinuses on the drooping pedicels. The fruit is a prefabricated multi-berry (multi-leaf), which has a racemose shape and a length of about 10 centimeters. They include juicy red berries, inside which are the seeds of this plant. Lemongrass blooms in May – June, and its flowering duration is from 1.5 to 2 weeks. Fruits reach full maturity in September.
Schisandra fruits are used to make jams, jelly and soft drinks. They are also used in the confectionery industry, from which they prepare fillings for sweets. Its juice is used for wine bunching, and aromatic tea is prepared from foliage and bark. Schisandra berries are used as a medicinal raw material.
Schisandra. Site "Garden World"
Watch this video on YouTube
Planting lemongrass in the open ground
What time to plant
In regions with a mild climate, lemongrass is planted in open soil in October; in mid-latitudes, this procedure is recommended in spring, or rather, in the last days of April or the first in May. A suitable landing area should be sunny and protected from the cold wind. Experienced gardeners recommend planting at least three shrubs of lemongrass at once, while keeping a distance of 100 cm between them. When planting a plant near the building, at least 150 cm must be retreated from it, in this case the water flowing from the roof will not fall on the root system of lemongrass.
First you need to prepare a pit for landing. Its diameter can vary from 0.5 to 0.7 m, while the depth should be equal to 0.4 m. At the bottom of the pit, it is necessary to make a drainage layer of broken brick or crushed stone, while its thickness should be about 10 centimeters. After this, the pit should be covered with soil mixture, which includes turf soil, leaf compost and humus (1: 1: 1), it also needs to be filled with 200 grams of superphosphate and 0.5 kg of wood ash. It will be possible to plant seedlings after half a month, during which time the soil in the pits will have time to compact and settle.
For planting, it is recommended to use two or three year old seedlings. In height at this time they reach only 10-15 centimeters. Their root system is very well developed, so adaptation to a new place takes very little time.It should be noted that after the plant is planted, its root neck should be at the same level with the surface of the site. The soil in the near-stem circle must be well compacted. The planted plant needs abundant watering. On the edge of the trunk circle, it is necessary to make a roller from the earth of a ten-centimeter height, thanks to it, water will not spread during irrigation. After the liquid is absorbed into the soil, the surface of the trunk circle will need to be covered with a layer of mulch (humus).
Chinese Schisandra planting (on the east and west sides)
Watch this video on YouTube
Care for lemongrass in the garden
Planted in open ground lemongrass seedlings quickly take root, but at first they will need protection from direct sunlight. Caring for such a plant is very simple, you need to water it in time, not very deeply loosen the surface of the trunk circle and remove weed grass. During severe drought, the foliage of this plant must be sprayed with water. An adult in drought also needs to be provided with regular watering and spraying, while on average about 60 liters of water should be consumed per 1 bush, which must be heated in the sun.
In the third year of growth, this vine is fed. So, in April, you should make 20-30 grams of nitrate in the soil of the trunk circle, after which the plant will need abundant watering. When the liquid is absorbed into the soil, its surface must be covered with a layer of mulch (humus or leaf compost). In the summer, every 15–20 days, the plant should be fed with a solution of fermented mullein (1:10) or chicken droppings (1:20). In autumn, under each liana, 20 grams of superphosphate and 100 grams of wood ash must be added to the near-stem circle, they are closed up to a depth of about 10 centimeters. Then the plant should be well watered.
Supports for lemongrass
Trellis will be needed to grow such a vine. This method of placement will allow lemongrass to receive more sunlight, and this has a very positive effect on the size of the fruit. If it is grown without support, then it will be a small bush, and it will rarely produce fruit. Installation of trellis is made in the same year as the planting of seedlings. To make it, you need to prepare the pillars, their height must be such that after they are buried in the ground by 60 centimeters, they rise above the surface of the plot by 200-250 centimeters. Between the posts you need to observe a distance of 300 centimeters. When they are installed, it is necessary to stretch the wire in 3 rows: the first row must be made at a height of half a meter from the surface of the site, and the second and third - every 0.7–1 meter. While the bushes are young, they are tied to the lowest wire. As the stems grow, they need to be tied to those wires that are higher.
If this vine is planted near the building, then in this case the trellis can be replaced by a ladder, which is installed obliquely.
The first pruning of this culture is carried out after 2 or 3 years have passed after planting in open soil. At this time, the rapid growth of the root system should slow down, the file library will slow down, and aboveground organs, on the contrary, will begin to develop more rapidly. Of the growing stems, you need to choose 3–6, and the rest should be cut at the ground level. As a rule, pruning is done in the fall, when all the leaves fall. However, if the bush is very thickened, then this procedure is performed in June or July. In the winter or spring months, pruning is prohibited, since at this time of the year there is intense sap flow in the vine, so if you cut the stems, this can lead to the drying of the bush, which will cause it to die.
Also, lemongrass will need regular sanitary scraps, for this it is necessary to cut out all dry, small, injured, damaged by a disease or pests branches, as well as those that contribute to thickening. It is also necessary to shorten excessively long lateral shoots, while no more than 10-12 buds should remain on them.
The root shoot should be cut as necessary during the season. To rejuvenate the vine, stems, which are about 15-18 years old, must be gradually removed, while they should be replaced by a young basal shoot.
Lemongrass pruning Lemongrass pruning
Watch this video on YouTube
This culture is extremely difficult to transplant. At the same time, even a slight drying of the root system negatively affects the well-being of the plant. In this regard, experts do not advise to multiply lemongrass by dividing the bush. If transplantation cannot be dispensed with, then thoroughly prepare before digging up the plant. First you need to dig a new landing hole and prepare the required amount of soil mix. Only after that it will be possible to dig out the vine itself.
Such a plant can be propagated by seeds, rhizome offspring, cuttings and layering.
In order to grow lemongrass from seeds, it is recommended to sow in the winter, using freshly picked fruits for this. They can also be sown in spring. To do this, the seeds should be freed from the seedlings, then they will be stratified for 8 weeks. Prepared seeds are sown in boxes filled with seedlings, while they are only half a centimeter deep into the substrate. Tanks on top should be covered with paper. You need to water the crops every day. The first seedlings should appear 7-15 days after sowing. They should be protected from direct sunlight. Crops 1 or 2 times watered with a solution of pinkish manganese potassium. When the third or fourth real leaf plate begins to develop in the seedlings, it will be necessary to transplant them into larger boxes, with the distance between the plants to be about 50 mm. Planting in open ground should be done in the first summer weeks, but first the seedlings must be hardened within 15 days. Landing area should be shaded. During planting between seedlings, a distance of at least 10 centimeters should be observed. So that the bushes do not suffer, in winter they will need to be covered with fallen leaves or fir spruce branches. These seedlings in a permanent place can be planted only after they turn 2 or 3 years.
For harvesting cuttings, the tops of young stems are used. They are cut in the first days of July. Take a solution of heteroauxin or Kornevin and lower the lower sections of the cuttings into it for a day. Then they are planted in moist sand, the container is covered from above with a transparent glass cap or film.
As layering, powerful annual shoots of basal shoots are taken. In April, before the sap flow begins, they must be bent to the surface of loose soil, then they must be fixed in this position and covered with soil mixed from above, consisting of humus and peat, the thickness of which should be from 10 to 15 centimeters. The upper part of the lay should be fixed on the trellis. Roots at the layering appear on the fourth – fifth month, and an independent root system is formed over two or three years. Then layering can be cut off from the mother plant and planted in a permanent place.
Propagation of Schisandra chinensis
Watch this video on YouTube
Propagation by root offspring
Reproduction by root offspring is carried out in the last days of April or the first - in May. To do this, select 2–4 offspring as far from the bush as possible, they are dug up and immediately planted in previously dug holes.They need to be transplanted very quickly, since even due to a small drying of the root system, the plant may not take root in a new place. Transplanted offspring should be watered abundantly for four weeks, and they will also need protection from direct sunlight.
Pests and diseases of schisandra
Not a single harmful insect settles on lemongrass, most likely this is due to the specific smell of this plant. He also has a fairly high resistance to disease, however, sometimes such a vine becomes ill.
Leaf culture can affect this crop. In infected specimens, vague brown spots with black dots of pycnidia appear on the lower surface of the leaf plates. This disease has one feature, the fact is that it can have a bacterial or fungal nature. To cure the vine, you need to spray it with a preparation containing copper in its composition.
If large spots of almost black color with violet-bordered spots appeared on the leaf blades, this means that the plant is infected with phyllosticosis of the leaves. In some cases, the affected tissue located in the center of the spot is colored and falls out, and a hole appears in its place. As a rule, only old foliage is affected by this disease. Treat an infected plant in the same way as in the case of spotting.
If lemongrass is infected with ascochitosis, then brown spots are formed on its surface, reaching up to 2 cm in size, while they have distinct zones. A diseased bush should be sprayed with a solution of Bordeaux mixture (1%).
Also, lemongrass can get sick with a fungal disease such as ramulariosis. Brown single spots are formed on the affected specimen, angular or rounded, while their central part has a paler color, a pink coating appears on it. A diseased plant must be treated with a fungicide.
With the defeat of powdery mildew on the surface of shoots and leaf plates, a loose coating of whitish color appears. Gradually, the plaque becomes dense and brown. If the disease is at the initial stage, then you can get rid of it by treating the bush with soda ash. If the disease is started, then for spraying it will be necessary to use a preparation containing copper.
Seedlings of this plant are susceptible to Fusarium. Because of it, a constriction forms in the lower part of the stem (dark ring). After some time, the shoot in this place becomes soft, which leads to the death of the plant. The infected plants must be pulled out, and the substrate must be shed with a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
Growing Schisandra in the suburbs
Chinese magnolia vine grows very well in the suburbs. This culture is grown in Siberia and the Urals, as it has high frost resistance. Schizandra is not afraid of any frost, especially if the bush is covered with a thick snowdrift. However, young plants for wintering must be covered. To do this, they are covered with a thick (10-15 centimeters) layer of fallen leaves, over which a spruce branches are thrown to scare away the rodents. An adult liana does not need shelter for the winter.
Growing Schisandra chinensis
Watch this video on YouTube
Types and varieties of lemongrass
Only 1 species is cultivated by gardeners - this is Far Eastern lemongrass, or Chinese. This species has 2 varieties:
- Firstborn. Mid-season variety characterized by resistance to frost, pests and diseases. Fruits of a cylindrical shape consist of fragrant carmine-red fruits, reaching about 0.7 cm across and weighing 0.6 grams. Acidic juicy pulp is painted in deep red color. The fruits are covered with a thin skin, if pressed down, the juice will stand out quite easily.
- Garden-1. This variety is characterized by rapid growth and high productivity. About 25 sour, fragrant and very juicy fruit grows in one fruit.
Properties of Schisandra: harm and benefit
The healing properties of lemongrass
The composition of lemongrass fruits includes organic acids (tartaric, malic and citric), sugars, coloring and tonic substances, vitamins C and E. The seeds contain fatty oil. The foliage contains macro- and microelements calcium, magnesium, manganese, copper, iron, zinc, cobalt, iodine and aluminum.
The biologically active substances contained in schisandra schizandrol and schizandrin are of the greatest value. They stimulate the nervous and cardiovascular systems, as well as improve liver function. The daily dose of these substances that the body needs is contained in 50 grams of fruit pulp.
Already in the 5th century BC, people knew that Chinese magnolia vine has a tonic and refreshing effect. That is why hunters living in the Far East took with them the dried fruits of this plant. Today, these plants are used for mental or physical fatigue, depressive and asthenic syndromes as an adaptogenic and stimulating agent.
The seeds and berries of this creeper are used in Chinese medicine to strengthen the heart, as well as for hypertension, anemia, sexual weakness, nephritis, heart neurosis, pulmonary tuberculosis and liver diseases. A decoction of fruits is used to stimulate tissue respiration, and also to reduce blood sugar.
Schizandra tincture is used to prevent acute respiratory infections and influenza, it helps to reduce the amount of glycogen in the liver, but there is an increase in its content in muscle tissue. To prepare the tincture, you need to connect 20 grams of fruit and 10 grams of crushed seeds to combine with 100 milligrams of alcohol (70%). The vessel is tightly corked and cleaned in a darkened cool place for 1.5 weeks for insisting. Filter the tincture and drink on an empty stomach 25-30 drops.
Such a plant is also used in the cosmetic industry. It is added to face masks with a tonic effect.
Schisandra chinensis Medicinal properties
Watch this video on YouTube
Schisandra, as well as products made on its basis, have practically no contraindications. Lemongrass should not be abused with increased acidity of the stomach, with high blood pressure, and also for people suffering from insomnia and easily excitable. Pregnant, as well as breast-feeding women, before consuming lemongrass, you should consult a doctor.