Primulina: home care, photo varieties
Such lovely, delicate, magical, exotic and unusual flowers, as primulas were previously called hirits. Leaf plates of such plants have extremely unusual symmetry. They are distinguished by incredibly elegant flowers, as well as their unpretentiousness. In such a plant, almost everything is unique, incredibly gentle and beautiful. Such flowers are perfect for those gardeners who seek to find a cute, compact and extremely unusual plant that can become the "pearl" of the home collection. However, you should not be afraid that primula is a rather rare plant, because it is relatively simple and easy to care for. Florists have not yet had time to appreciate such a flower, but it is rightfully considered one of the best rare plants.
Features of Primula
Flower growers are just beginning to get acquainted with such unusual beauties as primrula, and therefore they have not yet gained their well-deserved popularity. So, for example, spirulina not so long ago could meet, except in isolated collections. Today it is considered a little-known and very exotic plant, but many flower growers already know that such a cute “baby” has a very unpretentious disposition and can become an adornment of any collection. Such a name as "primulin" is known only to a small number of flower growers. However, those who saw such flowers at exhibitions or in home collections will forever remember their unusual and very delicate beauty. There are many examples when the florist first met such a beauty, already returned to his home with several copies.
Primulina - These are quite rare southeast exotics that are grown at home. Their homeland is Asia. Even today, new species are discovered that are found in the highlands of Malaysia, India, China, as well as Sri Lanka. But at the same time, the largest number of species of such plants come from Thailand and China. Primulas are directly related to the Gesneriev family. Such plants at home began to grow no more than 20 years ago. A few years ago, changes were made in their classification, which was perceived as a revolution in botany. So, this genus was previously considered monoviform, but thanks to studies it has expanded to more than 100 species of plants that were earlier called chirites (Chirita). This name is still often used by flower growers to this day, so this beauty is often called primitives-hiritas, and sometimes just chirits. However, despite the confusion in the names, such cute flowers are quite easy to recognize, even given the diversity of their species.
Such a plant has a very spectacular rosette of leaves. It is often compared with a leaf rosette of an uzambar violet, however, apart from the size and type of development, they no longer have anything in common. It should be noted that these flowers have almost no similarities with violets, especially these plants differ in leaf plates. However, there are such types of primulins that from a distance resemble violets in some way. In this flower, the leaves are arranged symmetrically, which is unique. They are almost always ideally pairwise opposite. So, each sheet plate necessarily has an “opposite”. Outwardly, this symmetry makes the plant spectacular and very elegant, while many people take the flower for a small miracle. Most types of sockets do not have stems. And there are species in which the formation of a short stalk occurs. Also, such plants differ in that they grow in breadth all the time, so there are species and varieties in which the leaf rosette is quite large (diameter about 40 centimeters). There are species that create peculiar tiers, due to the fact that they grow lateral plants.It is also worth remembering that an adult plant does not lose its spectacular appearance. So, its unique symmetry does not disappear. For various species, the size of leaf sockets can vary from very large to miniature (dwarf). The height of such plants, as a rule, does not exceed 20 centimeters, but most plants are much lower.
Only in some species the leaves are outwardly remotely similar to violets. They are located opposite and have short or medium petioles. Their surface can be glossy, slightly pubescent, and also velvety (with dense hairs). The shape of the leaf plates directly depends on the species and variety and can be ovoid, rhombic, round, linear, spade or linguistic. A greater number of species have strips and veins of light or silver color on the surface of leaflets. In the photographs it is impossible to appreciate the beauty of the leaves. The fact is that light patterns seem to shine, and if you look at such a plant live, you get the impression that liquid silver is poured on the leaves, which continuously flows. This effect is somewhat similar to that of precious orchids.
The graceful flowers of this plant can compete in their beauty with orchids, but their device and shape are completely simple. Such flowers have a certain similarity with gloxinia, as well as with gentians. Five-petalled flowers have a tubular shape, while the tube they have is quite narrow. And they have a light pastel or whitish color. On the surface of the flower itself and the asymmetrical pharynx are stripes of lilac and dark purple. On fairly long peduncles, the height of which always exceeds the height of the leaf rosette, inflorescences are arranged in the form of a brush. They are quite loose and consist of 3–7 flowers. In inflorescences, flowers, as well as leaves, are arranged symmetrically and not very densely, which contributes to emphasizing the beauty and grace of this plant during flowering.
Flowers can be painted not only in specific lilac-white tones. Thanks to breeders, a large number of varieties were born, the flowers of which can be painted in pink, yellow, blue, white, blue, as well as lilac. The main color of the flower is distinguished by its tenderness, pastelness and dullness. But the veins have a brighter and more saturated color cast.
With all its advantages described above, this plant also blooms for a very long time. So, with the duration of flowering, it can compete with phalaenopsis. So, flowering lasts almost constantly and is interrupted only during the dormant period, which is quite short. As a rule, the flowering of species primulas begins in the summer, and in order for it to continue in the winter, illumination is required. Flowering in varietal plants lasts year-round with one break for a short rest period in the winter.
DF.Chirites and primrins, agricultural engineering (I. Rachkov)
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Primrose care at home
Primulas can be grown indoors even by experienced growers and beginners. They quickly enough adapt to new conditions and do not react too negatively to errors in leaving. The most spectacular appearance can be achieved if you take good care of the plant. Such a flower is less capricious and demanding in care compared to Saintpaulia. It is resistant to cold, lack of lighting, and also to short drought.
Such a plant grows well both in bright places and in partial shade. But you should only remember that it must be protected from direct rays of the sun.
This flower can be grown without natural light, completely replacing it with artificial. For this, fluorescent lamps or phytolamps are suitable. The duration of daylight hours varies from 8 to 12 hours, while the plant blooms, as usual when it is located on the windowsill.In this regard, the primrose can be placed indoors or to collect a collection on shelves.
With the onset of winter, when daylight becomes shorter, the flower has a short rest period. When providing illumination (optional), flowering continues in the winter.
Such a flower requires regular room temperature all year round. It should be remembered that you can not expose it to temperatures less than 0 degrees (even for a very short period), and you should not keep it at temperatures below 10 degrees for a long time. So, in the spring-summer period, a temperature of 21 to 26 degrees is recommended, and in the winter - from 15 to 20 degrees.
Draft is tolerated well enough. However, it is recommended to protect the plant from cold draft. If you ventilate the room more often, the plant will have a more spectacular appearance.
How to water
When watering such a plant, it should be remembered that it will feel best of all in a constantly slightly moistened substrate. Avoid not only stagnation of water in the soil, but also excessive watering, as primula can harm even short-term waterlogging of the soil. It is very resistant to drought. So, a flower can withstand even complete drying of the soil in a pot. However, for abundant and continuous flowering, watering should be systematic and moderate. So, the plant should be watered after the topsoil dries well. During the dormant period, watering should be reduced.
When watering, do not allow the liquid to get on the leaves or in the base of the outlet. Therefore, for primulins, it is recommended to water through a tray or a container with a flower can be immersed in water. Drop watering is perfect for such a plant.
It is recommended to water with water at room temperature, but it is better if it is tepid. Cold water can kill a flower.
Not too demanding on air humidity. So, it is enough that such an indicator exceeds only 35%. But if the air in the room is still drier, then at the primrose, most likely, the ends of the leaf plates will dry out. It is forbidden to moisten a plant from a sprayer, even if it has smooth leaves. Other methods of increasing humidity are acceptable. But remember that the flower does not need excessively high humidity.
It is necessary to feed during intensive growth 2 times a month. Universal complex fertilizer is suitable (the recommended dose on the package is best reduced by 2 times). Fertilizer of prolonged exposure can be used. During dormancy, the flower is not fed.
Leaflets, stems and flowers that begin to fade should be trimmed or cut off as quickly as possible.
Earth mixture and transplant features
For planting, you can use a purchased earth mix designed for violets. However, any soil can be used for such flowers, as long as it is light, loose and porous. At the same time, it must necessarily contain a large amount of peat, as well as a baking powder (for example, moss or vermiculite). For the preparation of soil mixtures, it is recommended to combine turf and sheet land, peat and sand, which should be taken in a ratio of 1: 1: 2: 1.
The diameter of the container for planting the plant should be 3 times smaller than the leaf outlet. Moreover, this rule applies to both small and large specimens. In this case, the width and height of the pot should be approximately equal (you can use a pot with a wider, but low).
Young specimens need a transplant once a year, and adults need it. The transplant is carried out by the method of transshipment, while the earthen lump is left intact. The root neck is deepened to the previous level. But if the lower leaves are fallen and the stalk is bare, then you can pour soil to the leaf outlet. At the bottom, do not forget to make a good drainage layer, and add some baking powder to the soil.
Pests and diseases
Rot is the most dangerous enemy of primulin. It spreads to all parts of the plant quite quickly and occurs due to waterlogging or when the leaves come in contact with water. It is recommended to remove the damaged parts of the plant and treat the cuts with charcoal. Place the plant in a dry place and be sure to transplant if the substrate becomes dense or begins to mold. The fungicide is most often powerless in this case. With the decay of the base of the primula outlet, as a rule, it dies.
Resistant to harmful insects.
- Dry pale spots appearif you water the flower with cold water.
- The lower leaves of young specimens turn yellow - a transplant is needed; in adults, a natural process.
- Sheet plates fold - due to too high air temperature or excessively intense lighting.
- Greens are actively growing, and sparse flowering - excessively large capacity or the plant is not properly fertilized.
It can be propagated by seeds or leafy cuttings. To root a leaf plate with a petiole, water, a mixture of peat and sand or sand, soil are suitable. It is recommended to cover with a cap or film. After 6 weeks, there will be many children who can be separated and planted in a separate pot. For rooting, parts of leaf plates, which are divided along the lateral veins, are also suitable.
There are species in which, as they grow, a daughter plant appears at the base of the outlet. It is separated and planted in a separate container.
Sowing of seeds is carried out in the last winter or first spring weeks. To do this, use a mixture of sand and earth (1: 1) or earth. Sowing is superficial, while the seeds do not need to be sprinkled with soil. The container is covered with glass or film and cleaned in a well-lit, warm (more than 25 degrees) place. In the warmth, the first seedlings will appear after half a month. The lower the air temperature, the longer this process will drag on. Young plants should be highlighted, while the daylight should be at least 12 hours. Water should be drip, without disturbing the flower itself. When the first true leaflet appears, you need to pick. It should be taken into account when working with a plant that it is extremely fragile.
Types of Primulas
Species primulas are less popular than varietal ones, but they also have a very spectacular appearance, which is why their growers also grow with great pleasure.
Primulina tobacco (Primulina tabacum)
This is one kind of primulin that has been included in this genus from the very beginning. Such plants are often referred to today as true, and all, because other species have passed from the genus chirite. This species comes from China and it is endangered and protected. The plant has rounded leaf plates that emit a smell reminiscent of a mixture of mint and tobacco. They are quite wide, almost round and painted in a deep green color. Form a stemless leaf rosette. A spectacular serrated wavy edge is symmetrical with respect to the midrib. A network of veins is clearly visible on the surface of the leaf plate. On fairly long peduncles, flowers (up to 7 pcs.) Are tubular in shape. They have a narrow tube, and the diameter of the corolla slightly exceeds 1 centimeter. They consist of 5 rounded petals, on the surface of which there are stripes that are outwardly similar to the rays.
Previously, this species was called Hirita Tamiana (Chirita tamiana). This compact form is considered semi-miniature. His leaves are most similar to violets. So, they have a round-oval shape, are fleshy, and on the surface there is pubescence. A perfectly symmetrical outlet forms a compact bush. Twenty-centimeter long flower stalks carry from 5 to 7 flowers, which are painted white, and on their surface are purple-blue dark stripes.
Primulina double (Primulina gemella)
This variety is leafy.Dense sockets consist of small oval-shaped leaves that are placed equally symmetrically. As a result of this, they create almost tiled circles. On the surface of velvety leaflets are light green veins, and their main color is very bright. Also, these plants have the ability to constantly produce daughter sockets and become a multi-level plant. Such features of this flower are unique. On the peduncle is only 1 or 2 snow-white flowers.
Its botanical name is primula dryad (Primulina dryas, however, it is most often called Primulina sinensis or is also called “silver primula.” In this type, a symmetrical rosette consists of leaflets, on the surface of which there is a beautiful pattern. They are placed opposite and create a rosette that they can reach a height of 20 centimeters. Leaflets have an oval shape and a serrated edge, and they reach a length of 10 centimeters. Their color is saturated or silver, and on the surface there is a dense pubescence, as well as a network of silver patterns. The length of lavender flowers does not exceed 4 centimeters , and they are part of the inflorescences, which are located on high light red pedicels.
Primulina linearifolia (Primulina linearifolia)
This species is abundantly blooming. His flowers are cream-white or pale pink. Dark colored hard leaves have a lanceolate shape, and on the surface there is a silvery pubescence.
This is a unique species, its narrow saturated green leaves have a lanceolate shape. At the top of the pharynx, light-lilac flowers have a yellowish stripe, and below - veins of a dark color.
Small-spotted primulina (Primulina minutimaculata)
This species was discovered only in 2008. Dark lamellar plates with a linguistic shape have an unusual velvety-glossy surface. On their surface are short streaks of light color, which are unique. They create a kind of "twig" in the center of the leaf plate.
Primulina spadiciformis (Primulina spadiciformis)
Shiny wide leaves of this compact plant have a rich color. The flowers are quite large and wide whisk, and they are painted in lilac color.
Primulina Sabromboids (Primulina subrhomboidea)
This species is quite rare. Spectacular shiny leaves have a lanceolate shape. The tube at the flower has a white color, and the corolla is saturated lilac-blue.
Varieties of primrose
The most popular in comparison with species forms are a variety of varieties and varieties that have appeared thanks to breeders. These plants differ from each other in color, shape of leaf plates, size. Thanks to this, you can collect a whole collection of data from the most beautiful plants that will differ from each other, but remain all the same beautiful. When buying primulas, it should be noted that the variety is indicated as a species name, instead of the usual name of the plant, and next to it is the variety. So, for example, the primrose of the Aiko variety is simply called Aiko (without quotes), while the Latin name uses the abbreviated form Primulina Aiko, instead of the accepted one - Primulina tamiana cv. Aiko. Because of this, it is not so easy to distinguish between varietal and species plants, because the variety name is entered into the catalogs as species.
Below are the best varieties.
Atsuko - rounded satin leaves with a serrated edge, painted in emerald color. They are located perfectly symmetrical and create a model leaf outlet. They also have very spectacular, large lilac-blue bell-shaped flowers. Their neck is painted white, and yellowish stripes are located on the surface.
Aiko - Velvet leaf plates are elongated-oval in shape, and they make up a very compact outlet.Long peduncles bear flowers of a rich yellow color with a peach tint, while at the neck there are reddish spots.
Junko - similar to the previous variety. It differs in a more compact size, and also its sheet plates are slightly wider.
"Kazu" (Kazu) - velvet leaves of such a compact plant have a lanceolate shape. It has rather large flowers with lavender color and a prominent lower lip.
Kitaguni - flowers are painted in a yellowish-cream color. Medium-sized leaf blades have a silver-green color.
Hisako - such a spectacular plant has variegated foliage. Large wide teeth are located along the edge of the sheet plates, and silver streaks are located on their surface. The flowers are painted in lavender color and have a lemon neck.
Mineko (Mineko) - oval-shaped leaves have an almost smooth surface and saturated color. The bell-shaped flowers have a rich lilac color and a white neck, the petals are quite large and elongated. On the surface of the flower scattered yellowish-orange spots and stripes.
Vertigo (Vertigo) - This unusual variety has flowers of a deep blue color and a whitish neck. Variegated leaf plates have a serrated edge, and in the center there is a divergent Christmas tree of veins, painted in light green color.
Fate (Destiny) - This variety has variegated foliage. Wide sheet plates have a lanceolate-oval shape and a serrated edge. On the surface in the central part are strips of silver color. There is also a spectacular pattern in a light color shade, as well as an unusual almost black border. On the surface there is still a pubescence of burgundy color, but it can be seen only nearby.
Sweet Dreams - large shiny leaves are painted in olive color. Light-colored flowers are pale yellow.
Betty - shiny sheet plates have a dark border and a prominent vein extending in the center. On the entire surface there is a silvery thin pattern. The flowers are light blue.
Souvenir (Souvenir) - a small plant has narrow oval leaves, in the center passes a strip of saturated light green-silver color. The flowers are pale lilac.
Marble Leaf - oval-heart-shaped leaflets have a serrated edge, as well as a luminous strip of silver color passing along the central vein. Lilac-pink flowers have a light yellow neck.
Jade Moon Is a miniature variety. Its small rhombic-shaped leaves are part of a perfectly symmetrical outlet. Large flowers have a lavender color. The diameter of the outlet for an adult does not exceed 15 centimeters.
"Moonlight" (Moonlight) - This variety is considered the most watercolor. On the surface of its oval-elongated leaves, which have a saturated color, there is a light marble pattern. Long peduncles bear unusual flowers. At the edge, the whisk is painted in dark purple, turning into an almost white base. The neck is white, and spots of orange color are located on the surface.
"Piccolo" (Piccolo) - This compact variety is more popular. In the center of its spectacular dark-colored leaf plates is a luminous strip of olive-green color. The flowers have a lilac color, and orange spots are located in their light throat.
"Diane Marie" (Diane Marie) - This compact variety is variegated. Dark emerald oval leaves along the edge have large teeth, and on the surface they have a marble silver-whitish pattern. Sufficiently large flowers are painted in lilac, and on the surface they have stripes of yellow as well as dark purple.
Huba - rather large ovoid-shaped leaf plates have oval edges. They are painted in dark green color and decorated with a large network of silver color patterns, while in the central part the pattern is almost invisible, and closer to the sides it becomes brighter.
Lola - rhomboid-shaped leaflets having a steel shade are decorated along the edge with large teeth. They are assembled in a socket with perfect symmetry. Bell-shaped flowers are painted in a dark lilac color, and on their surface are saturated stripes of purple and orange.
The Nimbus - on the surface of the oval leaves of this compact plant are strips of pearlescent color. Very cute flowers are similar in appearance to gramophones and painted in lilac-white.
Rachel - This plant is miniature. Small leaves are almost lanceolate, and in the central part there is a white strip. Lilac flowers are decorated with stripes and a spot that has an orange or yellow color.
"Patina" (Patina) - sheet plates have a linguistic-oval shape. A speck of pearl color is clearly visible on their surface, and the effect of a bronze patina is also noticeable (due to pubescence of a pink color). On the surface of the lavender color of the flowers are orange stripes.
"Erica" (Erika) - the variety is watercolor. Leaflets elongated with a wrinkled surface. On the light lilac petals of the flowers there is a venous pattern.
"New York" (New York) - wide saturated color leaf plates are drooping and have streaks of light color. Leaky inflorescences consist of flowers of watercolor pinkish-white color. On the outer surface of the tube is a hump of raspberry color.
Periwinkle - saturated color shiny leaflets have a pointed shape. The flowers are quite large lavender.