Shelter of roses for the winter, preparation for wintering and pruning in the fall
Preparing roses for winter is especially important in those regions where the climate is pretty cool. If it is carried out incorrectly, then this can lead to the death of flowers. Popular today hybrids and varieties of garden roses can no longer go into a state of rest. That is why even in late autumn, their stems are covered with foliage, and also flowers often flaunt on them at this time along with buds.
With the onset of the first frost, rose bushes become dormant. However, after the air warms up again on the street and the temperature is above 0 degrees, the bushes begin to wake up, while the resumption of sap flow is observed in them. After it gets colder again on the street to minus 3 degrees, the juice freezes in the shoots, which leads to tissue breaks. As a result, frost holes appear, which are cracks of considerable length, inside of which there is ice. In these places where there is damage, pathogenic microbes easily penetrate into the tissues. As a result, during the subsequent thaw, the active development of the disease can begin. In order to protect roses from the appearance of frost holes and disease, you will need to create a dry shelter. In it, the juice, which can flow out from cracks formed on the shoots, dries quickly, because of which the wounds easily heal.
Preparing roses for winter
From the first day of August, feeding roses with nitrogen-containing fertilizers is stopped. Moreover, almost at the same time, gardeners feed the bushes for the first time before wintering. To do this, use the following nutrient solution: for 1 bucket of water 3.5 grams of borax (or 2.5 grams of boric acid), 25 grams of superphosphate, and another 10 grams of potassium sulfate. This volume of liquid fertilizer is enough to feed the bushes growing on an area of 4 m2.
Repeatedly, the plant is fed up after about 30 days (in early autumn) in order to strengthen it. For this root top dressing, the following solution is used: a bucket of water, 15 grams of superphosphate and 16 grams of potassium sulfate (or the same amount of potassium monophosphate). However, many gardeners believe that instead of applying the nutrient mixture to the soil, it is better to spray the foliage. But at the same time, the concentration of this solution should be 3 times less.
From the first days of September to spring, all loosening of the soil surface near the bushes should be stopped. The fact is that they can cause the awakening of sleeping buds, because of which the active growth of young shoots begins. And from the second half of September, plucking those buds, the size of which is not more than a pea, is carried out. And larger buds should be left so that they fully mature and form fruits.
Pruning and sheltering roses for the winter. Site "Garden World"
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Pruning roses in the fall (for winter)
What time do pruning
Many gardeners are not sure whether to cut rose bushes before wintering. This must be done. Only ground cover as well as park views are not pruned. At the same time, climbing roses need only light pruning. Autumn pruning is good in that it helps to make the bush stronger, increases its resistance to frost, and also improves crown ventilation.
Plants are cut from mid-October to the first days of November. Do this immediately before hiding the bushes for the winter. To do this, use a very sharp instrument, which should be sterilized in advance.
Autumn pruning rules
Before wintering, both adult rose bushes and recently planted are pruned. To do this, cut out all affected by the disease, excessively old, weak or dried shoots, and also remove all leaf plates, flowers and buds from the bush.Experts recommend leaving only 3 to 5 of the most powerful stems on one bush, while it is desirable that they are equally spaced relative to each other. You should also remove all those young stems that are not ripe before the fall. It is likely that during wintering they may form rot, and this can cause the death of the entire plant.
- Cut the bushes on a fine day, while there should not be a strong wind.
- Thick shoots covered with slightly dried bark, which are at least three years old, are difficult to cut off with a simple tool. Therefore, a hacksaw is used to remove them.
- All cuts, as well as cuts, must be done at an angle. This will protect the places of cuts from stagnation of the liquid, which will drain down.
- A slice is made by stepping back from the kidney up about 5 mm. In this case, the kidney should not be sprouted, but swollen.
- Trimming stems is recommended on the outer bud. In this case, the young stems emerging from it will not thicken the crown and intertwine.
- Shortening the shoots is carried out to the white core.
It is also important to know at which shoots the length of the shoots is shortened during trimming. In total, 3 types of pruning of stems are distinguished:
- Long trim. In this case, only a small part of the stem is cut. At least nine kidneys should remain on it.
- Medium crop. The stem is shortened at a height of 0.35 m from the surface of the earth, while five buds should be left on it.
- Short cropping. It is carried out very rarely. The stems are cut almost completely, and no more than two buds should remain on them.
Hybrid tea, floribunda and polyanthus roses shorten, leaving 4 or 5 buds, which should be well developed. Only young bushes of a standard cascading rose (in the first year of growth) are subjected to short pruning, and their stems are shortened to 15 centimeters. In older bushes, only those stems that have bloomed are pruned, while young shoots are only slightly shortened.
After pruning the repairing varieties, as well as the roses of grandiflora, only five buds should remain on the stems. In shrub and old English varieties, the stems are shortened by 2/3 or ¾. Park roses, which are highly resistant to frost, need only sanitary pruning. To do this, all injured, old and weakened branches are cut out from the bushes, while powerful young stems need only be slightly shortened.
When the pruning is complete, you just have to tear off all the foliage from the stems, do not forget to protect your hands with gloves. In order not to accidentally injure the kidneys during leaf removal, move the hand along the stem from bottom to top.
Pruning roses in the fall. How to prune roses for the winter?
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Pruning climbing roses for the winter
During the preparation of climbing roses for wintering, they also need pruning. In this case, cut out all dried, injured and weakened stems, as well as buds and opened flowers. Powerful, well-developed stems need only be shortened a little. Select 1 or 2 old long stems and shorten them to 0.35‒0.4 m. This is necessary to activate the growth of substitute root shoots.
Full pruning of this type of roses is extremely undesirable. The fact is that because of this, in the next season a lot of vegetative stems can grow on the bush, which will not bloom. Cut such a plant in the last days of September or the first - in October. When the bush is trimmed, be sure to tear off all the remaining foliage from it. After that, clean the surface of the soil near the roses of grass, leaves and cut shoots.
Shelter of roses for the winter
What time to harbor
After all leaf plates are removed from the shoots of roses, the plant will "understand" that it is time for a dormant period. You need to start covering it only after the places of cuts and saw cuts dry well. But remember that the rush in this matter is unacceptable.In the event that the autumn period is warm, then the bushes will still grow actively even after foliage removal. And if the plant is sheltered during this period, then this can lead to the buds' aging, and to the death of roses.
What is the optimum temperature for sheltering garden roses? The bushes should be about half a month at an air temperature of minus 2 to minus 5 degrees. In this case, they will have time to properly prepare for the rest period, all life processes in them will practically cease. At the same time, remember that self-growing roses can die when the temperature drops to minus 3 degrees, and those bushes that were grafted on rose hips can withstand frosts to minus 10‒12 degrees.
How to cover roses for the winter
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Estimated time of sheltering roses in the suburbs and in the middle latitudes
On the territory of Russia in the central regions, it is recommended to build a shelter for roses for the winter from November 1 to November 20. The day should be fine, and the air temperature should be from minus 5 to minus 7 degrees.
In the Moscow Region, the stems of floribunda, polyanthus and hybrid tea roses are pre-bent to the soil surface. At the same time, do not forget to throw a small layer of spruce branches under them in advance. You can fix the shoots in this position with studs made of metal or wood. Spend high hilling of the base of the plant using dry peat, humus, soil or compost. Bushes should be earthed to a height of about 0.35‒0.4 meters. Only after this, shoots bent to the ground are thrown with spruce spruce branches or flying leaves. If desired, strong arches made of metal can be installed over roses bent to the soil surface, on top of which a special covering material is stretched.
Floribunda roses, hybrid tea and stam roses have stems that are less flexible and more fragile compared to climbing roses. In this regard, they are rather difficult to tilt to the surface of the soil. That is why in this case the bushes do not bend to the ground. Instead, metal supports of an arcuate shape are installed above them, and their height should correspond to the height of the roses. Over the arcs you need to stretch the film. But before covering the plant, it is necessary to conduct a high hilling of its base.
Shelter for the winter you need only some varieties of roses. Most park hybrids and varieties are so resistant to frost that they do not need to be covered. And in order to protect those park varieties that are less winter-hardy from frost, you just need to wrap the bushes with paper, and also carry out a high hilling.
Shelter of roses for the winter in the Urals
In the Urals, it is recommended to start sheltering rose bushes in the last days of October. And you should wait for the time when the street temperature is set in the region of minus 5 degrees. If at this time the earth is covered with a layer of dry snow, then it will be very good. The fact is that snow does not allow the soil to cool excessively quickly. However, one should not hope that nature will take care of your roses. Winter can not do without sheltering plants.
Around the middle of the autumn period, the bushes should be shortened to the height of the shelter. After that, they cut out all the young stems that did not have time to ripen, and also tear off the foliage. Clean the soil surface near roses from plant debris. Often, various rodents climb under the shelter, which gnaw the bark at the bottom of the stems. To avoid this, experienced gardeners recommend putting special bait with poison under the plants. For this you need sawdust. They should be impregnated with a solution consisting of 10 liters of water and 1 tbsp. l creolin. Then it remains only to distribute the sawdust under the plants. The base of the rose is 1/3 of the height sprinkled with dry soil or peat. Those stems that were not filled up should be tied with spruce branches.
Single standing roses that have undergone a short pruning can be covered with wooden drawers on top. Take the tape and cover the drawers on top. And so that the shelter is not blown away by the wind, the edges of the film are sprinkled with soil or pressed with stones, bricks, etc. For ventilation, leave small vents. To do this, the film is pressed in several places loosely.
In the event that weather forecasters predict a very cold winter, it is recommended to build a kind of hut from plywood or boards over the plant. A film is laid on top of it. Please note that the height from the "ceiling" of the hut to the top of the bush should be about 10 centimeters. If you build such a shelter correctly, then the bushes will not mate and will not freeze. In the event that several rose bushes grow in your garden at once, and they are located next to each other, then for the entire width of the planting above the plants, you can install a frame of boards, which is covered with a film on top. Do not forget to press the edges of the film with something heavy to the surface of the site.
Features of sheltering roses in Siberia
When sheltering bushes for the winter in Siberia, several features of the climate in this region should be taken into account. If you cover the roses incorrectly, then they can freeze or start to sing.
Remember that the shelter of these flowers for the winter should be done in a timely manner. In no case do not cover them ahead of time. To determine the exact time for sheltering the bushes, you should carefully monitor the weather forecasts. Sometimes it happens that in late autumn Siberia is still quite warm.
Young bushes that have been planted recently can be protected from frost by covering them with a 5 liter plastic bottle on top of which the bottom should be cut off. From above the plant is thrown over the leafy foliage. To prevent the bush from starting to scrub, remove the cap from the neck of the bottle. Adult roses that have undergone a short pruning should be highly covered with dry soil, and sprinkled with a thick layer of fallen leaves on top. Since comparatively much snow falls in Siberia during the winter, your task is only to protect the bushes from the first severe frosts until you cover them with a thick snow layer on top.
Shelter of climbing roses for the winter
Since buds of climbing roses are formed on last year's stems, they can not be heavily pruned in autumn. And this greatly complicates the process of sheltering bushes for the winter. In this regard, the whips of such roses are bent to the surface of the plot (like raspberries), and it should be covered with lapnik first. Shelter plants are carried out only after the temperature in the street is constantly minus. Above the whips are thrown around the foliage or spruce branches. Then they insulate with a covering material or a film.
Shelter for the winter climbing roses Flammentants. Site "Garden World"
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Covering material for roses for the winter
Rose bushes will be protected from freezing in the winter by such covering material as:
- polyethylene film;
- flying foliage;
- rags and burlap;
- plywood and boards;
- unnecessary coats or blankets.
The choice of suitable covering material is influenced by the method of shelter, as well as the variety of roses. Large powerful bushes can be thrown only with spruce branches or foliage. And heat-loving varieties need better shelter. For them, it is necessary to install frames that are covered with a film, while the stems are additionally tied with rags and bags.
To shelter several bushes at once, most often they use film, but it is better to opt for lutrasil, geotextile or spunbond. They fit a frame made of wood or metal. These materials will protect the bushes not only from frost, but also from aging, as they are able to remove fumes.
Pay attention to the density of the covering material, it must be at least 200 g / m2. In this case, the material is folded into several layers.The edges of the non-woven shelter, which is stretched over the frame, must be pressed with stones, boards, etc. When covering with a film, several vents should be left for ventilation. And when using lutrasil, spunbond and geotextiles, this is not required. On the contrary, their edges are firmly pressed to the soil surface so that there are no holes.
If you cover the climbing roses with non-woven material, then their whips do not need to be laid on the ground. First, the bush base is hilled to a height of about 0.3 m. After this, the shoots are wrapped with several layers of covering material, which is fixed using ordinary clothespins or a stapler and staples.
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