Pruning in the fall for beginners: planting and care in the fall
The perennial shrub vine vine (Vitis) belongs to the Grape family. "Vitilis" - it is from this word that the name of the genus comes from, and it translates as "wicker". Under natural conditions, there are approximately 70 species of such a plant that grow only in the temperate and subtropical latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere.
Cultivated grapes (Vitis vinifera) are grown in orchards. This species is derived from forest grapes, which in the wild grows along the northern coast of the Mediterranean Sea and reaches the southernmost coast of the Caspian Sea. But cultural grapes are found only in vineyards and do not grow in nature.
When grown in favorable conditions, the length of the lashes of cultivated grapes can reach 30–40 m. And for those bushes that grow in regions with a cool climate, the maximum shoot length is 300 cm. The grapes cling to the support with the help of antennae. Young shoots are covered with pale yellow or light red bark. In this case, the bark on adult trunks exfoliates brown, and on its surface there are deep grooves. Three-five-lobed whole leaf plates are regularly located and have petioles.
The beginning of flowering occurs in May or June. Paniculate inflorescences are formed at this time, consisting of bisexual small flowers of a pale green color. Beginning of fruiting occurs in late summer or early fall. In this case, the ripening of fruits of late ripening varieties occurs in October.
Bunches can have a different size and shape, and they consist of berries, characterized by high juiciness. Each fruit contains 1–4 seeds. And there are varieties in the berries of which there are no seeds. The color of the fruit can be different - yellow, dark red, green or purple-black. Until 1963, the lifespan of cultivated grapes was about 150 years. But then phylloxera appeared on the territory of European countries. This pest is a great danger to grapes.
Pruning grapes in the fall. Preparing grapes for the winter
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Planting grapes in autumn
What time to plant
In autumn, the planting of grape seedlings in open ground can be carried out from early October until the frost. Please note that grapes must be planted at least 1–1.5 weeks before the first frost. Gardeners prefer to plant grapes in the fall rather than in the spring, because the buds are at this time in a state of sleep, and the root system is still actively growing. That is why with the onset of spring in the bushes planted in the fall, the active development of young shoots begins. In addition, at this time of year it is very convenient to plant grape seedlings purchased in the fall, as in this case they do not need to be stored until spring.
This plant is distinguished by its photophilousness. When choosing a place suitable for landing, preference should be given to an open area that has reliable protection against drafts and gusts of cold wind. It is extremely undesirable to plant such a shrubby vine near large trees. The fact is that they cast a thick shadow, and also suck out most of the nutrients from the soil, which negatively affects the development of the plant.
How to choose seedlings in autumn
It is best to buy grape seedlings only from those sellers who have a good reputation. But even in this case, you need to choose a seedling very carefully. If the height of the annual green stem of the plant is 0.4–0.5 m, and in diameter it reaches 0.7–0.8 cm, then it must have at least 3 brownish roots, which in diameter reach at least 0.2 –0.3 cm, and in length - from 10 to 15 cm. The seedlings of the seedling should be well ripened, and the root system should not be dry.
Shortly before planting, the stems of the seedlings must be cut so that 3 or 4 eyes remain. After this, the roots on the upper nodes are cut, and the remaining roots are slightly shortened. Then, the root system of seedlings for half a day (12 hours) is immersed in a solution of a root growth stimulator (for example, heteroauxin).
Autumn Planting Rules
Preparation of landing pits is done in advance. Their size should be 50x50x60 cm. A drainage layer from 50 to 70 mm thick is laid at the bottom of each pit; for this, pieces of brick or crushed stone can be used. A sheet of thick paper is laid on top of the drainage, and a drainage pipe is installed under the wall. It will be used in the future for watering and feeding grapes. After that, about 20 liters of nutrient soil, 10 liters of humus, one handful of wood ash and 1 tbsp should be poured into the pit. nitroammophoski. Mix everything well, and then pour so much soil into the pit so that it becomes full. For planting, it is recommended to use only the upper nutrient layer of the soil, which remained after the preparation of the planting pits. Spend several plentiful waterings of the pit, as a result of which the soil in it should settle. After this, the pit should still stand for about half a month. Immediately after the preparation of the pit, planting a seedling is extremely undesirable, since the soil during sagging draws down the roots of the bush to a great depth, which leads to injury. Experienced gardeners recommend preparing for such pits in the first days of August. When planting two or more seedlings, a distance of at least 100 cm should be observed between them.
Just before the grapes are planted, 10 liters of soil are poured into the middle of the pit so that a hill forms. A plantlet is placed on top of it, then straighten the roots and fill the hole with fertile soil until it grows. If the plant is not long, then it is placed vertically on the mound. And if it is longer than 25 centimeters, then it should be installed obliquely in the pit so that the heel is buried in the soil by half a meter, and the growth base is at a depth of 25 centimeters.
When the pit is filled with soil, be sure to tamp its surface and pour 20 to 30 liters of water under the seedling. When the liquid is absorbed into the ground, the seedling should be covered with a cut-off transparent plastic bottle from above.
Planting grape seedlings for permanent residence in the fall
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Grape Care in Autumn
After the entire crop is harvested from the grape bushes in autumn, they will need to be watered only in sultry, dry weather. To prepare the root system, plants for winter carry out only one plentiful watering in October, which is called winter. If during the preparation of the landing pit a special pipe for irrigation was not installed, then make some not too deep grooves near the plant. This is necessary so that during watering the plant, the liquid goes into the soil in those places where its root system is located, and does not spread over the site. Do not forget to systematically loosen the surface of the soil around the grapes. This will maintain the soil in a loose state and avoid excessively quick drying of the earth.
Experts recommend transplanting this culture in the fall. This must be done after the whole foliage has flown off the bushes, but before the frost begins. During transplantation, try not to injure the rhizome of grapes, which is distinguished by its fragility.
The preparation of a pit for transplantation is carried out in the same way as for planting a seedling. The transplantation of three-year-old bushes is carried out together with a lump of earth, while the rhizome is not necessary to shorten. In order for the earthen lump to remain intact, it is recommended not to water the vines for several days before transplanting. Older plants that are 5–7 years old must be dug in a circle, retreating from the stem for about 0.5 m.Try to dig the bush as deep as possible, but remember that the root can go into the soil to a depth of 150 cm, so you can’t completely pull it out of the ground. When the plant is removed from the soil, carefully remove all the earth from its root system, and then trim the old parts of the rhizome. Also trim the vines, with a maximum of 2 sleeves remaining on the bush, each of which should have 1-2 vines. And make a short cut of the upper parts of the branches. Places of cuts are sealed with wax. Next, the root system is immersed for a moment in a clay mash, in which it is necessary to add manganese potassium. The bush is placed obliquely in the pit. Further actions are exactly the same as when planting a seedling (see above). Grape transplantation in autumn is carried out at the same time as the planting of the seedling. In this case, he will manage to take root well and will normally winter in a new place.
Topping grapes in autumn
When the collection of berries ends, the plants will be very weak. That is why they will need mandatory top dressing in order to properly prepare for wintering. Autumn top dressing is carried out systematically 1 time in 3 or 4 years. Organic fertilizer is perfect for this. For example, the soil surface near a plant can be covered with a layer of peat mixed with wood ash, or rotted manure. Remember that the excess of nutrients in the soil is much more harmful for grapes than their lack. That is why excessive fertilizing of the soil should be avoided.
Grape Processing in Autumn
After harvesting, it is required to carry out preventive treatment of all grape bushes. This will help protect them from various diseases and pests. Since all berries have already been picked, special potent pesticides can be used to spray the crop. As a rule, the bushes are sprayed just before their shelter for the winter. After trimming, the stems are tied, and then they are treated with a solution of iron vitriol (5–7%), from 50 to 70 g of the product are added to 1 liter of water to prepare it. This drug helps protect the plant from many diseases and pests, but it is completely harmless to oidium and ticks, in which case it is recommended to use colloidal sulfur or Thiovit. Rovikurt will help get rid of the bunch of leaves, while it is recommended to use Polychom or Fundazole to combat cercosporosis.
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Reproduction of grapes in the fall
In autumn, it is recommended to use chubuki or cuttings for propagation of such a plant. Pruning bushes in autumn can be combined with harvesting cuttings. They are stored until the onset of spring, after which they are disembarked in the school. If you wish, you can try to root them in the winter in indoor conditions. For cutting the cuttings, a fully ripened vine is selected, which in diameter should reach at least 0.7 cm. Also, the vine should be a solid brownish or dark brown hue, if it is bent, then you can hear a slight crackle. For harvesting cuttings can not use green shoots. Still suitable vine should be fruiting, while it should be present "tails from clusters." Also note that the vine should not have any damage or signs of such dangerous diseases as: mildew, oidium or phylloxera.
After a suitable vine is found, proceed to cutting the cuttings, the length of which can vary from 0.3 to 0.4 m. At least 3 buds must be present on each handle. Your main task is to prevent the evaporation of all moisture from the cuttings, otherwise they simply will not take root. In this regard, during slicing, slices should be done in such a way that the handle on both sides ends with either a “tail” from the bunch or antennae.In such internodes there is a membrane that is able to protect the forelock from excessive loss of moisture. Harvested cuttings are immersed in water, where they must stay for 6 to 8 hours. Dry them and carry out the treatment with a “phyto-doctor”. Put a tag with the name of the variety on each stalk (so as not to get confused) and tie them several in bundles. For storage of Chubuk choose a moist and cold place (0-5 degrees), for example, a basement, a refrigerator or they can be buried in the soil in the garden. Before placing the cuttings on the shelf of the refrigerator, they are wrapped with a moistened cotton cloth, and then put into a perforated plastic bag. As the fabric dries, it must again be moistened with clean water. Rooting chubuk spend in the spring.
How and when to harvest grape cuttings
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Autumn pruning for beginners
What time do pruning
If the grapes are cut in a timely manner, then thanks to this it will be much easier for you to take care of it, as well as carry out the harvest. And regular pruning can increase the productivity of bushes. Vine growers did not immediately realize that there is a close relationship between pruning and yield of grapes. One funny case helped: even in those days when the Roman Empire existed, winegrowers noticed that the bushes that were eaten by a donkey are distinguished by high productivity and better growth. Since that time, grape bushes must be pruned every year. Thanks to this, not only the number of fruits increases, but they also become tastier and larger.
Forming pruning is recommended to be carried out precisely in the fall, especially if varieties are used for cultivation that need obligatory shelter for the winter. After all foliage has circled from the bushes, wait 15–20 days and start pruning. If you cut the grapes ahead of time, because of this, the roots and stems of the bushes will not be able to fully obtain the nutrients they need. If you cut it off after the due date, it can lead to injury to the lashes, because with a strong cooling, they become very brittle. But do not forget to pre-trim in September.
Remember that in the spring, when the sap flow begins, it is impossible to crop this crop in any case. It will take more than one day for the slice locations to be completely tightened. Therefore, spring pruning leads to the fact that the plant begins to "cry", or rather, to flow out with juice. As a result, on such bushes the harvest will be more scarce or they will die at all.
SIMPLE AUTUMN 🍂 CLIPPING GRAPES 🍇 How to cut grapes. Viticulture.
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In autumn, the vine is cut in two stages:
- First step. This is a kind of preparation of plants for later pruning. Cut bushes in the first autumn days, for this, on each perennial stalk, extra green growths are cut, located below the first wire, which should be stretched at a height of about 50 cm from the surface of the site. The growths located on the sleeves above this wire are minted, for this they are shortened by 10-15% of the entire length. Shortening to two or three leaf blades causes lateral shoots located on the growths.
- Second phase. After leaf fall, wait until 15–20 days have passed, then proceed to the formation of the fruit link, which should include the fruit arrow and the knot of substitution. The most frost-resistant varieties are cut first, for example: December, Lydia, Isabella or Gift. The last to cut the most heat-loving varieties. At the height of the lower two wires of the trellis, look for a pair of the most developed stems, and the lower should be located on the outside of the sleeve, which grows at an angle. This stalk should be cut off under the knot of substitution, and no more than 3 eyes from the base should remain on it.The second stem, which grows higher and on the opposite side of the sleeve (relative to the knot of substitution) is pruned under the fruit arrow, while the number of remaining eyes depends on its thickness: diameter 0.5 cm - 5 eyes, 0.6 cm - 6 eyes, 0 , 7 cm - 7 or 8 eyes, 0.8 cm - 8–9 eyes, 0.9 cm - 9 to 11 eyes, 1 cm - 11 to 13 eyes, 1.1 cm - 12 to 14 eyes, 1.2 cm - from 13 to 15 eyes. If your vine grows bunches weighing more than 0.5 kg, then on the fruit arrow should leave the least number of eyes possible (see above). If the mass of bunches is less than half a kilogram, then leave the largest number of eyes. For example, if the clusters formed on the bush have a mass of less than 0.5 kg, then with a stem thickness of 1.1 cm, 14 eyes leave on the fruit arrow, and if they weigh more than half a kilogram, then 12 eyes.
Grape pruning in the suburbs
In the suburbs began to cultivate grapes in the 17th century. However, only after the breeders bred varieties of cultivated grapes that winter well under shelter, the winegrowers began to harvest relatively rich crops. Still, these varieties are good in that when grown in the suburbs they practically do not get sick and almost do not need preventive treatments for various diseases. The following such varieties are most popular: Cardinal, Arcadia, Kodryanka, Delight, Timur, Kuban, Raisin, etc.
Cut the vines in the suburbs at the same time and in the same way as those that grow in warmer areas (for example, in the Crimea or in the southern part of Ukraine). But at the same time, they need better shelter for the winter.
In what month to cut and cover grapes in the suburbs in the fall
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Grape pruning in Siberia
Grapes grown in Siberia are pruned only in autumn. If you shelter uncircumcised bushes for the winter, then in the springtime after the air temperature under the shelter rises to 5 degrees or more, rot will appear on those shoots that have not matured. As a result, when the shelter is removed, you will find that the stems are covered with green (due to rotten buds) or gray mold. All bushes will have to be uprooted and new ones planted. In addition, the trimmed plant is significantly reduced in size, which facilitates its removal from the support and shelter.
Remember that in Siberia, the wood of young vines is not able to ripen on its own. That is why in the fall, the gardener should try to speed up this process. To do this, from mid to late September, you need to clear the base of the stem and thin out pruning: cut green and twisted shoots, antennae, as well as the remaining stepsons. Thanks to this, all the vines, without exception, will receive the necessary amount of sunlight. First, cut off the top of the grapes, and then fall lower and lower. Remember that the bushes of the first and second year of growth do not need preliminary pruning. Plants planted in the current season only need to be trimmed. At the same time, only tops and stepsons should be cut out from bushes of the second year of growth.
The second and last pruning in the current season is carried out only after the leaves on the bushes are completely frozen after the first severe frost. When this happens, the nutrients will cease to move from the stems to the root system, so you can safely proceed to pruning. In this case, the grapes are cut from the bottom. The second autumn pruning is carried out in the same way as described above (the formation of the fruit link is important).
After the average daily temperature is no higher than minus 5 degrees, the bushes are laid on the ground, and thrown with spruce branches from above. In the future, the fallen snow will become an additional shelter for the vines.
Pruning young grapes in Siberia
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Preparing grapes for the winter
How to prepare grapes for winter
In those regions where winters are frosty, grapes need mandatory shelter, especially those varieties that are characterized by low winter hardiness. The bushes are especially carefully covered if the winter in the region is not snowy. To begin, carry out pruning and preventive treatment of plants from diseases and pests. The grapes are prepared for shelter from the last days of October until the second half of November. Temporary decrease in air temperature to 7-8 degrees will not harm him, but on the contrary will become a kind of hardening.
If the bush is young, it will be enough to throw a layer of soil for the winter. But if the air temperature can drop below minus 15 degrees, then the bush is additionally covered from above with a box made of wood and sheathed with roofing felt.
Shelter for the winter
If the vine is already mature, then it is placed in a “tunnel” of plastic film: remove the stems from the supports and lay them on the soil surface, throw them with spruce branches, and install greenhouse arcs from above, then stretch the film over them. So that the polyethylene does not tear off, its edges are pressed with heavy stones or thrown with soil. Do not close the exit and entrance of the tunnel, this will allow the plants to harden, provide good ventilation, and thanks to this, the immature shoots will have time to sleep. However, if the frost is stronger minus 15 degrees, these holes in the tunnel must be closed.
In the event that it is not too cold in the winter in your region, a lot of snow falls, and the grape varieties in your garden are highly resistant to frost, then the bushes will be able to winter well without shelter.
HOW TO COVER THE GRAPES IN WINTER! VERY GOOD WAY !!!
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