Rudbeckia: planting and care in the open ground, types and varieties with photos
The herbaceous annual, biennial or perennial plant rudbeckia (Rudbeckia) is a representative of the asters family. There are approximately 40 species in this genus. Under natural conditions, such flowers can mainly be found on the prairies of North America. In Africa and Europe, it is cultivated the most. “Black-eyed Suzanne” - that is what the first immigrants to North America called this plant because there is a middle dark color on the inflorescence. However, people living in Europe decided that the name "sun hat" fits rudbeckia much more successfully. This plant was named Rudbeckia K. Linnaeus in honor of the Swedes father and son Rudbeckes, who are botanists, while the youngest of them was a teacher and friend of Linnaeus, and also great-great-grandfather of A. Nobel, and he is famous for discovering the human lymphatic system in 1653.
Features of rudbeckia
This flower has branched or simple shoots that are rigidly pubescent, the height of which can vary from 0.5 to 2 meters. There are wild species that can reach a height of even 3 meters. Cirrus-divided or cirrus-dissected whole leaf plates have an ovoid or oval shape. Their length varies from 5 to 20 centimeters, while in the upper part of the shoot they are sessile, and in the lower part they are long-stemmed. The diameter of inflorescence baskets reaches 15 centimeters, they include sterile marginal reed flowers that can be painted in various shades of yellow, as well as bisexual median tubular flowers painted in a variety of colors (from black-purple or brown to yellow). The fruit is an oblong-shaped achene, which sometimes has a small crown. Not very large glossy dark gray seeds remain viable for 2 or 3 years.
Rudbeckia. PRO Flowers program (PRO Flowers)
Watch this video on YouTube
Growing rudbeckia from seeds
All varieties and species except terry varieties can be propagated by seeds. And perennials also multiply by dividing the rhizome. Sowing seeds can be carried out directly in open soil. This is done in the second half of June on a pre-prepared bed. A distance of 15 centimeters is kept between the spreading seeds, on top they need to be sprinkled with a thin layer of soil. Then the bed should be watered abundantly, while it must be gently sprayed with water so as not to wash the seeds. In autumn, small leaf rosettes will appear on the garden, and next year they will become dense bushes that will begin to bloom a little earlier than those planted in springtime. It should also be borne in mind that this plant reproduces itself spontaneously. If you wish, you can do nothing with this, but just in spring to thin out the emerged seedlings and not be tormented with sowing.
It is possible to grow through seedlings both annual and perennial rudbeckia. Sowing is carried out in the last days of March or the first - in April. Seeds are sown in seedling boxes, while they are sprinkled on top with a thin layer of substrate and only slightly sprayed with water, using a spray bottle. The container must be covered with a film and transferred to a place where the air temperature will be in the range of 20–22 degrees. The first seedlings can be seen in 7-14 days. Until the seedlings appear, the crops should be watered if necessary, as well as systematically ventilating and removing the condensate that has appeared from the shelter. When the seedlings form 2 pairs of real leaves, they will need to be planted in such a way that they can grow normally without interfering with each other. When the plant has taken root, you should proceed to harden them. To do this, they must be daily transferred to the terrace or balcony for several hours.
Rudbeckia planting in open ground
What time to land
Seedlings should be planted in open soil in the last days of May, but only after it is known for sure that night frosts will not return. For such a flower, you need to choose a well-lit place with a permeable, cultivated soil, saturated with nutrients. If the soil is clay, then sand is made under it for digging. And in any soil before embarking rudbeckia it is recommended to make compost. When choosing a site, it should be remembered that this plant normally develops and grows with not very strong shading.
When planting between bushes, a distance of 0.3 to 0.4 meters must be observed. If warm weather is observed, then the planted flowers take root very quickly. If the street is pretty cool (especially at night), then the seedlings transplanted into the open ground for the night will need to be covered with agrospan until it takes root. Rudbeckia, which has taken root, can easily tolerate low temperatures without shelter. When growing perennial species and varieties, it should be remembered that such a flower can grow 3-5 years in the same place, therefore, after planting, it is recommended that the soil surface in the area be covered with a layer of mulch (compost), the thickness of which should be about 8 centimeters.
Rudbeckia Cultivation Care Reproduction
Watch this video on YouTube
Caring for perennial rudbeckia
It is necessary to care for rudbeckia, as well as for most garden flowers. It should be watered on time in the morning or evening, while if there is prolonged hot weather, watering should be frequent. It should also be remembered that after each irrigation, the soil is loosened and, if necessary, weeding. If the variety or species is high, then it must be tied to a support. At the very beginning of the growing season, it is necessary to top-up such a plant; for this, a nutrient solution consisting of 1 bucket of water is used, in which one large spoonful of potassium sulfate, nitrophoska and Agricola-7 should be dissolved. For 1 square meter of the site, 3 liters of such a solution are taken. After a fortnight, Rudbeckia is fed a second time using the same nutrient mixture. When the inflorescence begins to fade, it must be torn off with part of the peduncle to the upper healthy leaf plate.
In the event that, without a transplant, such a flower is grown for more than 5 years, then it has a dense shoot, which leads to clogging of the site. In order to avoid this, a transplant should be made on time. Dig a plant and divide it into parts, which are then planted on a new bed, while remember to maintain the necessary distance between the specimens. It should also be noted that the division or transplantation must be done until the moment when the intensive growth of the bush has begun. Therefore, it is recommended to do this in early spring or when the rudbeckia fades.
How to propagate such a plant by seeds, as well as by dividing the bush is described above. Other breeding methods do not exist.
Diseases and pests
Rudbeckia is very rarely affected by powdery mildew. At the same time, a friable coating of white color appears on the ground parts of the bush. To cure an infected specimen, it must be treated with a solution of colloidal sulfur (1%) or copper sulfate (80 grams of substance per 1 bucket of water). If spots of brown color appeared on the leaf plates, they began to thin and wilt, this means that the bush is infected with a leaf nematode. In this case, affected and injured rudbeckia should be removed from the site, and the remaining bushes for prophylactic treatment with Nemagon, Bazamide or Nemafos, while adhering to the instructions attached to the drug. In the event that annual plants were affected, then with the onset of autumn time all their residues will need to be destroyed, while the site is thoroughly digged and shed with a solution of potassium permanganate, which should be very strong.
Of the pests of such a flower, caterpillars and larvae are dangerous. But it should be remembered that if the rudbeckia is properly looked after, then you will not have any problems with its cultivation, since the plant has a fairly high resistance to diseases and pests.
The end of flowering and seed ripening occurs in autumn. Seed collection should be carried out only after they have dried well on the plant itself. Then you need to wear garden gloves and carefully collect them exclusively from the central part of the flower. Then the seeds are scattered on a newspaper leaflet and placed in a well-ventilated room for ventilation.
In autumn, it will be necessary to trim the aerial part of perennial rudbeckia to the surface of the site. Such a plant must be covered for the winter. To do this, the site is covered with a thick layer (from 5 to 7 centimeters) of humus or cover plants with dried grass, or you can use lapnik.
Types and varieties of rudbeckia with photos and names
Those types and varieties of rudbeckia that are grown by gardeners are divided into perennials and annuals (they are also called biennials).
Hairy rudbeckia (Rudbeckia hirta)
Her homeland is North America. This species is cultivated as an annual or biennial plant. Rough shoots can be branched or simple, and in height they reach about 100 centimeters. Basal leaf plates are ovate, whole have petioles, and stem ones are once again located, hairy, broadly lanceolate, sessile, with large teeth. Inflorescence baskets are located on long peduncles, and in diameter they can reach 10 centimeters. The tubular flowers are purplish-gray, and the reed ones are yellow; there is a convex receptacle. Often cultivated by such undersized varieties, such as: Goldflamme and Toto Rustik, reaching a height of 0.35 m; Indian Summer and Marmalade, having a height of about 0.45 m; Goldstrum, with a height of about 0.6 m, and the diameter of its simple inflorescences is 10 centimeters.
Rudbeckia bicolor (Rudbeckia bicolor)
The height of such a bushy erect rudbeckia can vary from 0.25 to 0.7 meters. On the surface of the shoots there is pubescence, the shape of the leaf plates is lanceolate. The diameter of inflorescences with a saturated color can reach from 6 to 8 centimeters; they have 2 rows of flower reeds painted in orange or yellow, sometimes with a black-purple base. On a receptacle about 20 mm high, which has the shape of a cylinder, tubular flowers of almost black color are located. Rudbeckia begins to bloom in the second half of June, and ends after the onset of frost. The most popular variety is Herbstewald: the bush reaches a height of 50 centimeters, and the diameter of inflorescence baskets is about 7 centimeters, with tubular flowers in black and reed - brown-red.
Giving rudbeckia (Rudbeckia amplexicaulis)
The bush reaches a height of 0.8 m. Seated oppositely laid bare leaf plates can have an elongated or oval shape with a pointed apex and a fine-toothed edge. The color of the reed flowers is rich yellow, tubular dark brown are located on the receptacle, which rises to 30 mm.
Rudbeckia triloba (Rudbeckia triloba)
The bush reaches a height of 1–1.4 m, its flowering is short, but very plentiful. The lower leaf plates are three-lobed, and the stem ones are oval and dark green in color. Small inflorescences consist of dark brown-tubular and yellow reed flowers.
Glossy rudbeckia, or radiant rudbeckia (Rudbeckia fulgida)
The bush reaches a height of about 0.6 m. Narrow lanceolate leaf plates are solid. The diameter of the inflorescences is about 9 centimeters, they include tubular dark red and reed orange flowers.There is a variety of varibilis, its middle flowers are dark purple, and the marginal ones are yellowish-orange. The varieties Goldstar and Goldsturm, which have a convex middle of brown color and reed flowers of golden color, are also quite popular among gardeners.
Dissected rudbeckia (Rudbeckia laciniata)
In height, the bush can reach 200 centimeters. The highly branched rhizome is horizontally located. The stem leaf plates are tripartite, and the lower ones are pinnately separate. The diameter of the inflorescence basket reaches 10 centimeters, they comprise from 1 to 3 rows of marginal flowers of rich yellow color and pale yellow tubular. There are a large number of varieties, but the Golden Ball is the most popular: this semi-double or terry plant has inflorescences reaching 10 centimeters in diameter, which consist of tubular light green flowers and marginal - a rich yellow color.
Rudbeckia occidentalis (Rudbeckia occidentalis)
This species is extremely interesting in that its inflorescences are outwardly similar to a languageless chamomile. In height, the plant can reach 1.2–1.5 meters. For example, the Black Beauty variety is very unusual: it has completely no reed flowers, in connection with this its inflorescences are similar to a cone of black color, which is surrounded by green bracts.
Giant rudbeckia (Rudbeckia maxima)
The bush of this species is relatively large. On the surface of green leaf plates there is a layer of a wax coating of a bluish color. Saturated yellow reed flowers are located on a very prominent cone-shaped receptacle, while the tubular ones are painted in dark colors. This species is highly resistant to frost and drought. Inflorescences located on long peduncles can be used for cutting.
Glossy rudbeckia (Rudbeckia nitida)
The height of the bush is about 200 centimeters. Glossy sheet plates are oblong-lanceolate. The diameter of the inflorescences is about 12 centimeters. They consist of green tubular flowers and yellow - reed. There are such very beautiful varieties, such as: Goldshrim and Herbston.
Rudbeckia beautiful or beautiful (Rudbeckia speciosa)
The height of the bush can vary from 0.5 to 0.6 meters. Rounded or oblong sheet plates have a non-serrated edge. The composition of inflorescences-baskets, the diameter of which can reach 10 centimeters, includes tubular flowers of brownish-black color and yellowish-orange reed, with 3 cloves at the end of the limb.
Hybrid rudbeckia (Rudbeckia hybrida)
This species combines varieties of rudbeckia hairy, glossy and dissected, which have rather large inflorescences-baskets (diameter about 19 centimeters), consisting of tubular flowers of brown color with a purple tint, and brownish-yellow reed, having a length of about 14 centimeters. As an example, consider the following varieties:
- Gloriosa Daisy - grow as an annual or perennial, the height of the bush is about 1.2 m, the diameter of the inflorescences is about 16 centimeters, they include 1-3 rows of plain or variegated flowers of brownish-yellow or yellow colors, and the middle of the tubular shape is painted in dark brown ;
- Double daisy - highly branched, rough shoots can reach a height of 1.2 m, ovate-shaped whole leafy plates are very pubescent, the diameter of terry inflorescences is about 17 centimeters, they include tubular flowers of brown color and reed, which can be variegated or monophonic.
Echinacea or rudbeckia
The healing properties of echinacea have been known for a long time. Interestingly, in 1753, purple coneflower Carl Linnaeus was classified as a rudbeckia. The homeland of both plants is the North American prairies located in the southeastern United States, while they prefer to grow in nutrient moist soil in the open. But Mench, who is a German botanist, in 1794 brought echinacea purpurea, which until that time was called purple rudbeckia, into a separate genus.
What are the differences between these colors? For example, they have a different color of inflorescences, so, in Rudbeckia, reed flowers can have different shades of yellow, brown and orange, and in Echinacea - raspberry or purple. Echinacea has tough, very prickly, awl-shaped pointed bracts and a receptacle, and in rudbeckia they are soft. This feature can be traced in the name of Echinocia - “echitnos”, which from Greek translates as “prickly”. Echinacea is also distinguished by the fact that it has medicinal properties, which, despite the assurances of some people, are completely absent in rudbeckia.
Rudbeckia, cultivation and care. Not a demanding perennial!
Watch this video on YouTube