Deytsiya: planting and care in the open ground, types and varieties with photos
Deutzia is a perennial woody plant that can be evergreen or deciduous. This plant belongs to the hydrangea family. This genus unites approximately 50 species of various plants that can be found in natural conditions in East Asia, Mexico and the Himalayas. In the middle latitudes they began to be cultivated recently, but they immediately fell in love with gardeners for spectacular and very long flowering. Japanese and Himalayan forms of action were introduced into European countries by Dutch merchants in the early 19th century. But European gardeners learned about Chinese species only at the end of the 19th century.
This plant was named K. Tunberg. He named it after Johann baths Deitz, who was mayor of Amsterdam, and he was also the sponsor of the naval expedition to the East. This plant is gaining more and more love from gardeners every year, because it has a huge number of forms and varieties that differ not only in color, size and shape of flowers, but also in the size of the bush.
The bush of such a plant can be erect or sprawling. Its height varies from 0.4 to 4 meters. Leaf plates are oppositely located. The bush looks very similar to honeysuckle until flowering begins. Flowers unfold on last year's shoots. A large number of pink or white flowers that do not have an aroma are revealed on the bush. They are part of the apical inflorescences in the form of a brush. The life expectancy of an action is approximately 25 years. The fruit is a box.
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How to plant action in open ground
When to plant
It is recommended to land the action in spring time. At a time when the earth is already thawing, but the kidneys have not yet begun to open. A seedling having a closed root system can be planted before the start of the summer period. Before proceeding with a direct landing, it is necessary to choose the most suitable site for this. Open areas are best suited for this shrub, and after lunch, direct sunlight should not fall on the branches. It should also be noted that the action reacts negatively to a cold wind. The earth should not be dry, well-drained and rich in nutrients. The best mixture for planting is a soil mixture consisting of peat compost, humus and sand, taken in a ratio of 1: 2: 2. In the event that the composition of the soil at the planting site is very different from the necessary, then such a soil mixture will need to be poured into the prepared landing pit. Also, the bush needs slightly alkaline soil. In the event that it is excessively acidic, then during planting it is necessary to add 300 grams of hydrated lime to it.
It is necessary to choose a seedling in a special store carefully enough. You need to see that the stems do not have significant damage, signs of disease, and you also need to check the condition of the kidneys. Seedlings in containers are sold slightly more expensive than those that have an open root system. But it should be noted that for seedlings in containers it is impossible to assess what condition the roots are in, so they can be damaged, rotted or too dry. Seedlings with an open root system must be purchased immediately before planting, while the roots must be wrapped with a thick sheet of paper during transportation. Before planting a plant, it is necessary to cut off injured branches, shorten the roots to 35-40 centimeters. In the event that the root system is dry, then it is necessary to immerse it for 2-3 hours in a container filled with clay mash, and a liter of pale pink manganese potassium solution must be poured into it.
When disembarking an action, certain rules should be followed.So, when planting, one must take into account that from this shrub to any other plant or structure there should be a distance of at least 2.5 meters. The fact is that the adult bush is quite wide. The depth of the landing pit should be from 0.4 to 0.5 meters, at its bottom it is necessary to place a drainage layer, which can be made of sand or broken brick. After that, the root system of the action should be placed in the pit, and then it should be filled with soil mixture, which is described in more detail above, while from it you need to pour from 100 to 125 grams of nitrophosphate. After completion of planting, the root neck of the plant should be at the same level with the ground or buried a couple of centimeters into the soil. After planting, the soil must be compacted, and the bush must be watered. At the shrub, it is necessary to shorten all the stems to 3-5 buds, this will increase the bushiness of the plant. The near-stem circle must be covered with a layer of mulch (peat), while its thickness should be 5 centimeters.
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There is nothing complicated in caring for such a shrub, while a layer of mulch will save part of the work. Deytsiya reacts negatively to waterlogging, so it should be watered infrequently. It will be enough 1 watering per week, while 10 liters of water should go to 1 bush. During a hot dry period, the amount of water should be increased to 20 liters per bush. Since the second half of August, the plant is no longer watered at all. When watering is finished, you need to loosen the soil to a depth of 20 to 25 centimeters, while removing all weed grass. Top dressing is carried out once every 4 weeks, for this, 3-4 liters of liquid manure are poured under each bush. During the season, it is necessary to feed the action with complex mineral fertilizer (per bush from 120 to 150 grams) only 2 times. They feed the plant only during flowering.
Transplant this shrub is possible only in the spring. The fact is that a specimen transplanted at another time of the year does not have time to take root before the onset of winter. The plant must be dug carefully, while the lump of earth on the root system should not be destroyed. The bush must be dug around the perimeter of the projection of its crown, it is pulled out of the ground along with the roots and a lump of earth. Then it is moved to a new landing hole, which should be prepared in advance, while it is necessary to pour from 20 to 30 grams of complex mineral fertilizer into it. To fill the pit, the same substrate should be used as during planting, while it must be well compacted, and the plant must be watered. It is recommended to remove all old branches from the transplanted instance, and those that remain should be cut to 1/3. In this case, the near-stem circle should be sprinkled with a layer of mulch (peat). If the bush is young, then it will be ill quickly enough, but an adult bush will hurt for a relatively long time.
Caring for such a plant includes regular pruning. The action should be cut twice a season - in spring and autumn. In autumn, the branches blooming this year should be cut to the ground or to the first strong bud. You should also remove the old branches and those that cause the thickening of the crown. Together with sanitary pruning, crown shaping is also done. In spring, you need to shorten those branches that have frozen, and also remove the injured. In the event that during the winter the bush is very badly damaged and more than half of its branches are broken, then it is recommended to cut such a plant “by a stump”. Anti-aging pruning is also done in the same way.
Diseases and pests
The bush has a fairly high resistance to diseases and harmful insects. Very rarely, a bumblebee proboscis, which feeds on leaflets of action, can harm it. You need to process the bush with a solution of Karbofos or Phthalophos, which should be fifteen percent.
Action after flowering
During flowering, the action looks simply amazing, it is especially pleasing that the flowers on the plant last a very long time.However, the time comes, and it still ends, and here, and not far from winter. When planting a shrub, it should be noted that its resistance to cold is very low. Due to the fact that flowers appear only on last year's shoots, they need to be protected from frost, as best as possible. Otherwise, the plant will not bloom next year. In those areas where winters are mild and a large amount of snow falls, it is not necessary to cover the shrub, but its branches still need to be bent to the surface of the soil.
Care for the action in the suburbs
In those places where winters are frosty or with little snow, compulsory shelter for wintering is required. However, only snow cover will not be able to protect this plant from frost. Experienced gardeners recommend using an air-dry shelter to prepare such a shrub for winter. To do this, the bush must be bent to the surface of the soil and fixed. After that, you need to make a frame over it. The surface of the frame should be sprinkled with a layer of dry leaves or thrown with fir spruce branches. From above, everything is covered with lutrasil, and a film of polyethylene is stretched over it. This is necessary so that water cannot penetrate inside. This method of shelter is ideal for young shrubs, as their branches bend very easily to the surface of the soil. If the bush is an adult, then it should be tightly tied with twine or twine. On top of the connected bushes, it is necessary to wrap with a covering material that must allow air to pass through (burlap, spanbond or lutrasil). This will help protect the plant from the cold, while the buds will not sing.
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Types and varieties of action with photos and names
Several types and varieties of action are cultivated in the middle latitudes, while some of them are relatively popular.
Amurian action, or small-flowered (Deutzia amurensis)
This plant can be found in natural conditions in China, North Korea and the Far East. In Russia, this plant is protected in several reserves. It prefers to grow in coniferous-deciduous and oak forests, while it can be met at an altitude of about 1.4 thousand meters above sea level. Such a plant is a deciduous shrub, the shape of a bush in which is sprawling. In height, it can reach 200 centimeters. The branches are covered with brown bark, which eventually changes its color to gray. The length of oppositely arranged leaf blades is about 6 centimeters; they have an elliptical shape. At the base, they are wedge-shaped, and pointed to the apex, finely serrated, on both sides there is pubescence. In spring and summer, they are saturated green or green-ash color, and brown-yellow or ocher in the autumn months. Multifloral inflorescences of corymbose shape in diameter reach 7 centimeters. They include white flowers, odorless. The plant blooms for 20 days, with the beginning of flowering in the last days of June. The fruits are rather inconspicuous and painted in a dirty yellow color, they look like boxes almost spherical in shape. This species is characterized by moisture and light lovingness, as well as resistance to drought, gases and smoke. The plant is fast-growing, begins to bloom relatively early.
Deytsia graceful (Deutzia gracilis)
The birthplace of the plant is the mountains of Japan. The height of the bush can vary from 50 to 150 centimeters. The bush has a rounded shape, thin arched branches. It blooms very luxuriantly. The leaf plates are oblong-lanceolate in shape, they are elongated and have a point to the apex, the edge is uneven. They have a length of about 6 centimeters and are painted in a pale green color. The underside of the leaflet is naked, and on the front side there are stellate hairs. The flowers are white, they are part of upright multi-flowered racemose inflorescences, which reach about 9 centimeters in length.Flowering begins in the second half of July, while its duration is 35 days.
Rough, star-shaped action (Deutzia scabra)
Originally from Japan and China. The height of the graceful bush is about 250 centimeters. The color of the peeling bark with time is brown or light red. The length of the pale green leaf plates is 3–8 centimeters. On their surface there are small stellate hairs that give a leaf roughness. In this species, flowering begins later than all the others. The length of the brushes, consisting of white or pink flowers, is 12 centimeters. Action blooms from 15 to 20 days. Decorative forms:
- Terry. The inside of the double flowers is white, and the outside is pink.
- Pure white. It has double white flowers.
- Watererera. The flowers inside are white, and the outer part is carmine.
- Pink Terry. There are terry pink flowers. The form is highly resistant to frost.
- White point. With small white dots on leaf plates.
The action is magnificent, or magnificent (Deutzia magnifica)
This hybrid plant was born thanks to the crossing of the action of Vilmoren and the action of a rough. In height, an erect bush reaches about 250 centimeters. The leaf plates are elongated, ovoid. Terry white flowers are part of large paniculate umbrella inflorescences, the length of which is about 10 centimeters. Flowering is incredibly plentiful, under the weight of the inflorescences, the branches acquire an arched bend. The plant begins to bloom in July, with a flowering time of approximately 20 days. This view is one of the most beautiful.
Long-leaved action (Deutzia longifolia)
The height of the bush varies from 100 to 200 centimeters. On the surface of the shoots there is pubescence. Leaflets are about 12 centimeters long; they are finely serrated along the edge. They are dark green in color on the front side, and greenish-gray from the pile with the wrong side. The diameter of the lilac-pink flowers is about 25 mm; in the buds they are purple. Flowering begins in mid-July. There is a long-leafed variety of Veitch; its flowers have a darker color.
Deutzia Lemoine (Deutzia x lemoinei)
This hybrid appeared due to the crossing of a graceful action and a small-flowered one. In height, the bush reaches about 200 centimeters. It blooms early and magnificent. Snow-white flowers have a diameter of about 20 mm, while they are part of small inflorescences, the length of which is 10 centimeters. Flowering is beautiful, lush and long, and the plant has good resistance to frost. Highly decorative varieties:
- Belle de nege. The height of the bush is about 150 centimeters. White flowers have a diameter of about 25 mm.
- Mont rose. The bush reaches a height of 250 centimeters. The flowers are large saturated pink color. The edges of the petals are wrapped so that the yellow anthers become visible.
- Pink pompom. A relatively new variety. The buds are carmine, and the flowers are deep pink terry. They are part of lush hemispherical inflorescences.
In addition to the species described in the culture, purple, large-flowered, Wilson and Wilmoren actions are found.
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