Fern Blechnum: home care, species, transplant
A kind of fern like blackhead (Blechnum) is directly related to the family of honeycomb (Blechnaceae). It unites about 200 species of plants, which are highly decorative.
This genus stands out for its long (about 1 meter), leathery, palm-shaped leaves, which are also called vayi. These pale green leaves are collected in a rather thick rosette located on top of a lignified, shortened stalk, which turns into a fairly powerful rhizome. In older, rather large specimens, the trunk can reach half a meter height, while this plant is very similar to a low palm.
Oval-elongated fern leaves are deeply cut and pinnately dissected. There are species in which the shares located along the central vein are at such a distance from each other that exceeds their width.
Long, narrow groups of spores (sores) are arranged in pairs along the central veins on the wrong surface of each leaf lobe.
Care for fern Blechnum at home
This plant is quite difficult to grow at home, because it has a rather capricious character. In order for blehnum to grow and develop normally, several important rules for care should be adhered to.
The plant needs partial shade or diffused lighting. Direct sunlight on foliage is contraindicated for such a fern, as they can leave burns. In this regard, it is best to place it on a window of northern orientation. If this is not possible, then the fern is placed away from the windows.
He loves warmth. In the summer, it needs a moderate temperature range from 20 to 25 degrees, and in winter - in the cool from 18 to 20 degrees. It should be remembered that the room should not be colder than 16 degrees, as the plant may die due to low temperatures.
It is also recommended to protect blehnum from drafts and from sudden changes in temperature. In this regard, you need to ventilate the room very carefully, avoiding the ingress of cold air masses on the plant.
How to water
The substrate in the pot should be slightly moist all the time (not wet). Do not allow fluid stagnation in the soil. It is necessary to water the fern after the top layer of the substrate is slightly dry. To do this, use lukewarm, soft and necessarily well-defended water.
Humidity in the room must be more than 60 percent. It will not be possible to increase the air humidity in the apartment to that level by simple spraying, especially during the heating season. The flower can be placed in the immediate vicinity of the home fountain or next to an open container filled with water. Thus, a spacious and well-lit bathroom will be an ideal place for a black tooth.
A suitable soil mixture should be neutral or slightly acidic. To prepare the earthen mixture you need to combine humus, leaf and peat soil, coarse sand in a ratio of 1: 2: 1: 1. It is also recommended to pour a small amount of crushed bark of coniferous trees into the soil mixture.
Also, ready-made special soil mix for ferns is perfect for planting.
Do not forget during planting about good drainage at the bottom of the pot, which will help protect the plant from fluid stagnation.
Top dressing is carried out during a period of intensive growth 2 times a month. To do this, use a complex mineral fertilizer for decorative and deciduous plants, while ½ should be taken from the dose recommended on the package. In winter, fertilizers should not be applied to the soil.
Such a plant is transplanted only in case of emergency, for example, when the root system becomes crowded in a pot. This procedure is recommended in the spring.
This plant often has a distinct trunk, however, it does not need pruning, so it does not branch.
When grown indoors, brehnum is best propagated by division. To do this, the overgrown specimen must be divided in half or into several parts, while each dividend must necessarily have several growth points. And the greater the number of such growth points, the faster the divide is established.
If there is a desire, then it is possible to collect spores from the wrong side of the foliage and sow them. For this you will need a mini-greenhouse.
Diseases and pests
Such a plant has a high resistance to pests. Most often it is ill as a result of violations of the rules of care.
So, fern reacts negatively to low humidity, heavy or inappropriate substrate, irrigating with inappropriate and cold water, intense lighting, temperature violation, and so on. In all these cases, the reaction of the blonchum is almost the same. Vayi change their color to yellow, spots form on their surface, and the leaf lobes curl at the same time.
The main types
Out of a large number of species, only a few are cultivated indoors.
Humpback Blechnum (Blechnum gibbum)
Hailing from the humid areas of New Hebrides and New Caledonia. The leafless leaflets are saturated green. Leaflets dissected to the central vein. Narrow belt-like lobes in this case have a sharpening at the tip and a very broad base, almost fused with each other. This species is most popular among gardeners.
Brazilian Blechnum (Blechnum brasiliense)
This plant comes from Brazil. This fern has a distinct trunk, and there are also very wide leaf plates. The foliage of the young specimens is painted in olive color, and in the old ones it is dark green.
This species is of particular interest. This stunted plant reaches a height of only 30 centimeters. Petioles of the leaves are long and thin and at the same time painted in a dark, almost black color. Glossy leaves have a dark green color. Belt-shaped lobes of the leaves have the same width along the entire length and slightly wavy edges. As a rule, at the ends, such lobes are sharply chopped off, but some of them have 2 clearly distinguishable “horns”. In vivo, such ferns can be found in some areas of Australia.
Blechnum river (Blechnum fluviatile)
The birthplace of this species is New Zealand, as well as Australia. The wide-oval lobes of the leaflets are quite short, and the crown has an almost spherical shape. In height, the plant reaches 40 centimeters, and in width - 30 centimeters.