Kolumneya: home care, transplantation and reproduction, species
The herbaceous perennial ampoule plant of Columnae is part of the Gesneriaceae family. It is characterized by undemanding care, delicate flowers of a saturated color, and also stalks that are lowered. Also, the plant is popularly called "goldfish", which is associated with the color and shape of the flowers. Young stems stretch up, but over time they begin to fall. The vines, although fleshy, but very fragile, their length varies from 80 to 100 mm. Glossy leaf plates can be heart-shaped or oval, they are pointed to the apex. On the surface of the branches of the columnae very often you can see the dense pubescence of a light color. Foliage in length can reach from 40 to 100 mm. Flowers are formed closer to the middle of the stem, while they come out from the base of the leaf sinuses. Flowers can be painted in orange, pink or yellow. The plant blooms in the winter months or in the first spring weeks, because it is at this time in the southern hemisphere that summer.
Caring for a Column at Home
Columnae, growing at home, needs a lot of bright light, which must be diffused. During flowering, it is recommended that the plant provide additional lighting. Remember that it reacts extremely negatively to direct rays of the sun and drafts, in this regard, in the warm season, it is extremely undesirable to carry it to the street, and they also can not decorate the veranda, balcony, etc.
During the spring-summer period, the flower needs heat (from 23 to 27 degrees). In the room where he stands, it can be even hotter, but only with high humidity. In order to stimulate the intensive laying of new flower buds in the cold season, it is recommended to keep the bush in a cool place (from 16 to 18 degrees).
Watering and humidity
Since in nature this liana grows in the tropics in humid forests, it needs high humidity. This is the most important condition for the successful cultivation of columnae in indoor conditions. In this regard, it is recommended to moisturize the flower every day from the atomizer, and you can also use a household humidifier to maintain an optimum level of humidity. Instead, you can take a wide pan and fill it with large pebbles, then pour water into it, and install a container with a vine on top. Make sure that the bottom of the pot does not come into contact with the liquid. Due to this, natural evaporation of moisture will be observed around the plant throughout the day.
For watering and spraying it is necessary to use soft water, which does not contain lime, otherwise the column can be very damaged or even die. The substrate in the pot is moistened only after its top layer dries. After some time after watering, be sure to drain the water that has accumulated in the pan.
The flower is distinguished by a fragile and very sensitive root system; in this regard, it is extremely undesirable to transplant it unnecessarily. As a rule, it is imperative to transplant the columna recently acquired in the store, as well as the one whose root system has ceased to fit in the pot. The plant is transplanted by transshipment while preserving a lump of earth, while trying to injure the roots of the flower as little as possible.
Kolumney: spring transplant
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Both young and adult bushes are grown in the same earth mix. To begin with, a not very high medium-sized flower pot is taken and a good drainage layer is made at its bottom. Only after this an earth mixture is poured into it. In a specialized store you can buy ready-made soil mix, which is designed for semi-epiphytes.If desired, the soil mixture can be prepared with your own hands, for this 4 parts of leaf and turf soil, 2 parts of peat and 1 part of a mixture consisting of sphagnum, sand and charcoal are combined.
During the growing season in the warm season, it is recommended to systematically feed the flower, for this they use complex mineral fertilizer. Perfectly prepared ready-made nutrient mixture for indoor flowering plants, which can be bought in a specialized store. Fertilizer is dissolved in water and applied to the soil during irrigation. Avoid getting the nutrient mixture on the surface of the foliage.
Every year after the column has faded, pruning is carried out. It is necessary in order to rejuvenate the vine and maintain its spectacular appearance. If it is not trimmed, then after a few years it will be an untidy bush that has lost its attractiveness. In addition, it is necessary to timely cut off the beginning to fade leaf plates, flowers and shoots.
The quickest and easiest way to grow column is by cuttings. Harvesting cuttings is carried out in February or March, for this young stems are cut. The length of the segment should be 60–70 mm, remove all sheet plates from it except 4–5 pieces. For rooting, the cuttings are planted in a moistened soil mixture consisting of a universal substrate and a small amount of peat. Before they grow roots, they are kept in a warm (21 to 24 degrees) and well-lit place. In addition, they need to provide systematic daily moderate watering, while avoiding stagnation of fluid in the soil mixture. You can find out that rooting was successful by the new pairs of leaf plates that appeared on the cuttings. When this happens, the plant can be planted in individual pots, while using a soil mixture that is suitable for growing columnae (see above).
Columnae: propagation by cuttings
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Growing vines from seeds is a more complicated and lengthy task. If you still decided on such an experiment, then keep in mind that the seed material of the columna has low germination, and if the seedlings appear, then most of them can die. Most often, only experienced growers are interested in seed propagation.
Sowing seeds is recommended in the last days of February, while you need to consider that the crops will need greenhouse conditions. Fill the container with moistened soil mixtures consisting of sand and peat, smooth its surface and evenly distribute seeds on it. They are sprinkled on top with a thin layer of substrate, the container is covered with a film (glass). Crops need to be kept warm (from 23 to 25 degrees). Remember that they need to be aired every day, and moisten the soil mixture only if necessary. The first seedlings may appear 15–20 days after sowing. As soon as this happens, the container must be rearranged in a well-lit place, reliably protected from direct sunlight. If necessary, illuminate the seedlings with a fluorescent lamp. After 3 or 4 real leaf plates are formed on the seedlings, they will need to be peaked in individual pots. It is not necessary to dive a column.
Diseases and Pests
If watering the column is too abundant, either regular stagnation of water will be observed on its stems or in the root system, then gray rot may develop. As soon as the first signs of damage to the plant are detected, a number of measures must immediately be taken to save it. Carefully cut out all affected areas, and then treat the root system and the sections with a fungicide preparation solution. Then the bush is transplanted into fresh soil mixture.If the disease is severely neglected and the entire root system of the bush has rotted, then cut off the healthy stems and root them as described above.
Quite rarely, such harmful insects as scale insects, spider mites, aphids and thrips settle on the vine. They can be found on shoots and foliage, and get rid of pests with special insecticidal drugs.
Types of columna with photos and names
There are a lot of types and varieties of columna, therefore, below we will describe only those that are most popular with flower growers.
The bush is decorated with many small leaves of dark green color. During flowering, spectacular flowers of a rich yellow color are formed on the plant, on the petals of which there is a neat red border.
This spectacular herbaceous plant is decorated with flowers of bright red color. A characteristic feature of this species are fast-growing stems that create long vines.
The shoots are strewn with small dark green leafy plates, as well as flowers of a rich reddish-orange color.
Blood Red Column
The stems of this species are thickened, and the foliage is large. During flowering, beautiful red flowers appear. On the underside of the sheet plates there are red spots (in the form of stains).
The length of the stems of such a plant is about 100 cm; small greenish leaf plates and yellowish-orange flowers grow on them.
A distinctive feature of this variety are considered fleshy leaf plates, on the surface of which there is pubescence.
Such a columnia differs from other species in that there is a pile of pale red color on the surface of long fleshy stems, and it is also present on the underside of the foliage. Flowers are placed along the entire length of the stems and have a yellow color.
DF.Kolumnei.Growing and care.M Karpova
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